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Title: Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 3
       Volume 3: Soup; Meat; Poultry and Game; Fish and Shell Fish

Author: Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Release Date: February, 2006 [EBook #9937]
[Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule]
[This file was first posted on November 2, 2003]

Edition: 10

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LIBRARY OF COOKERY, VOL. 3 ***




Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Keren Vergon,
Steve Schulze and PG Distributed Proofreaders




WOMAN'S INSTITUTE LIBRARY OF COOKERY

VOLUME THREE


SOUP

MEAT

POULTRY AND GAME

FISH AND SHELL FISH



WOMAN'S INSTITUTE OF DOMESTIC ARTS AND SCIENCES, Inc.




PREFACE

This volume, which is the third of the Woman's Institute Library of
Cookery, includes soups and the high-protein foods, meat, poultry, game,
and fish. It therefore contains information that is of interest to every
housewife, for these foods occupy an important place in the majority
of meals.

In her study of _Soup,_ she will come to a thorough appreciation of the
place that soup occupies in the meal, its chief purposes, and its
economic value. All the different kinds of soups are classified and
discussed, recipes for making them, as well as the stocks used in their
preparation, receiving the necessary attention. The correct serving of
soup is not overlooked; nor are the accompaniments and garnishes so
often required to make the soup course of the meal an attractive one.

In _Meat,_ Parts 1 and 2, are described the various cuts of the
different kinds of meat--beef, veal, lamb, mutton, and pork--and the
part of the animal from which they are obtained, the way in which to
judge a good piece of meat by its appearance, and what to do with it
from the time it is purchased until all of it is used. All the methods
applicable to the cooking of meats are emphasized in this section.
Supplementing the text are numerous illustrations showing the ways in
which meat cuts are obtained. Besides, many of them are so reproduced
that actual cuts of meat may be readily recognized. Equipped with this
knowledge, the housewife need give no concern to the selection, care,
and cooking of every variety of meat.

In _Poultry and Game,_ the selection and preparation of all kinds of
poultry receive attention. While such food is somewhat of a luxury in a
great many homes, it helps to relieve the monotony of the usual protein
foods, and it often supplies just what is desired for special occasions.
Familiarity with poultry and game is a decided asset to any housewife,
and success with their cooking and serving is assured through a study
of this text, for every step in their preparation is clearly explained
and illustrated.

In _Fish and Shell Fish,_ the other high-protein food is treated in full
as to its composition, food value, purchase, care, and preparation. Such
interesting processes as the boning, skinning, and filleting of fish are
not only carefully explained but clearly illustrated. In addition to
recipes for fresh, salt, smoked, and canned fish are given directions
for the preparation of all edible shell fish and recipes for the various
stuffings and sauces served with fish.

Too much cannot be said about the importance of the subjects covered in
this volume and the necessity for a thorough understanding of them on
the part of every housewife. Indeed, a mastery of them will mean for her
an acquaintance with the main part of the meal, and when she knows how
to prepare these foods, the other dishes will prove a simple matter.



CONTENTS

SOUP
  Value of Soup
  Classification of Soups
  Uses and Varieties of Soup Stock
  The Stock Pot
  Principal Ingredients in Soup
  Processes Involved in Making Stock
  Serving Soup
  Recipes for Soup and Soup Accompaniments
  Stocks and Clear Soups
  Heavy Thick Soups
  Cream Soups
  Purées
  Chowders
  Soup Accompaniments and Garnishes

MEAT
  Value of Meat as Food
  Structure and Composition of Meat
  Purchase and Care of Meat
  Purposes of Cooking Meat
  Methods of Cooking Meat
  Time Required for Cooking Meat
  Beef--General Characteristics
  Cuts of Beef
  Steaks and Their Preparation
  Roasts and Their Preparation
  Preparation of Stews and Corned Beef
  Beef Organs and Their Preparation
  Making Gravy
  Trying Out Suet and Other Fats
  Preparation of Left-Over Beef
  Veal
  Cuts of Veal and Their Uses
  Veal Cuts and Their Preparation
  Veal Organs and Their Preparation
  Preparation of Left-Over Veal
  Mutton and Lamb--Comparison
  Cuts of Mutton and Lamb
  Preparation of Roasts, Chops, and Stews
  Preparation of Left-Over Lamb and Mutton
  Pork
  Cuts of Pork
  Fresh Pork and Its Preparation
  Cured Pork and Its Preparation
  Preparation of Left-Over Pork
  Serving and Carving of Meat
  Sausages and Meat Preparations
  Principles of Deep-Fat Frying
  Application of Deep-Fat Frying
  Timbale Cases

POULTRY AND GAME
  Poultry as a Food
  Selection of Poultry
  Selection of Chicken
  Selection of Poultry Other Than Chicken
  Composition of Poultry
  Preparation of Chicken for Cooking
  Preparation of Poultry Other Than Chicken for Cooking
  Cooking of Poultry
  Stuffing for Roast Poultry
  Boned Chicken
  Dishes from Left-Over Poultry
  Serving and Carving of Poultry
  Game
  Recipes for Game

FISH AND SHELL FISH
  Fish in the Diet
  Composition and Food Value of Fish
  Purchase and Care of Fish
  Cleaning Fish
  Boning Fish
  Skinning Fish
  Filleting Fish
  Methods of Cooking Fish
  Recipes for Fish Sauces and Stuffings
  Recipes for Fresh Fish
  Recipes for Salt and Smoked Fish
  Recipes for Canned Fish
  Recipes for Left-Over Fish
  Shell Fish--Nature, Varieties, and Use
  Oysters and Their Preparation
  Clams and Their Preparation
  Scallops and Their Preparation
  Lobsters and Their Preparation
  Crabs and Their Preparation
  Shrimp and Their Preparation




SOUP

SOUP AND ITS PLACE IN THE MEAL

VALUE OF SOUP

1. SOUP is a liquid food that is prepared by boiling meat or vegetables,
or both, in water and then seasoning and sometimes thickening the liquid
that is produced. It is usually served as the first course of a dinner,
but it is often included in a light meal, such as luncheon. While some
persons regard the making of soup as difficult, nothing is easier when
one knows just what is required and how to proceed. The purpose of this
Section, therefore, is to acquaint the housewife with the details of
soup making, so that she may provide her family with appetizing and
nutritious soups that make for both economy and healthfulness.

2. It is interesting to note the advancement that has been made with
this food. The origin of soup, like that of many foods, dates back to
practically the beginning of history. However, the first soup known was
probably not made with meat. For instance, the mess of pottage for which
Esau sold his birthright was soup made of red lentils. Later on meat
came to be used as the basis for soup because of the agreeable and
appetizing flavor it provides. Then, at one time in France a scarcity of
butter and other fats that had been used to produce moistness and
richness in foods, brought about such clear soups as bouillon and
consommé. These, as well as other liquid foods, found much favor, for
about the time they were devised it came to be considered vulgar to chew
food. Thus, at various periods, and because of different emergencies,
particular kinds of soup have been introduced, until now there are many
kinds from which the housewife may choose when she desires a dish that
will start a meal in the right way and at the same time appeal to
the appetite.

3. VALUE OF SOUP IN THE MEAL.--Not all persons have the same idea
regarding the value of soup as a part of a meal. Some consider it to be
of no more value than so much water, claiming that it should be fed to
none but children or sick persons who are unable to take solid food. On
the other hand, many persons believe that soup contains the very essence
of all that is nourishing and sustaining in the foods of which it is
made. This difference of opinion is well demonstrated by the ideas that
have been advanced concerning this food. Some one has said that soup is
to a meal what a portico is to a palace or an overture to an opera,
while another person, who evidently does not appreciate this food, has
said that soup is the preface to a dinner and that any work really worth
while is sufficient in itself and needs no preface. Such opinions,
however, must be reconciled if the true value of this food is to be
appreciated.

4. Probably the best way in which to come to a definite conclusion as to
the importance of soup is to consider the purposes it serves in a meal.
When its variety and the ingredients of which it is composed are thought
of, soup serves two purposes: first, as an appetizer taken at the
beginning of a meal to stimulate the appetite and aid in the flow of
digestive juices in the stomach; and, secondly, as an actual part of the
meal, when it must contain sufficient nutritive material to permit it to
be considered as a part of the meal instead of merely an addition. Even
in its first and minor purpose, the important part that soup plays in
many meals is not hard to realize, for it is just what is needed to
arouse the flagging appetite and create a desire for nourishing food.
But in its second purpose, the real value of soup is evident. Whenever
soup contains enough nutritive material for it to take the place of some
dish that would otherwise be necessary, its value cannot be
overestimated.

If soup is thought of in this way, the prejudice that exists against it
in many households will be entirely overcome. But since much of this
prejudice is due to the fact that the soup served is often unappetizing
in both flavor and appearance, sufficient attention should be given to
the making of soup to have this food attractive enough to appeal to the
appetite rather than discourage it. Soup should not be greasy nor
insipid in flavor, neither should it be served in large quantities nor
without the proper accompaniment. A small quantity of well-flavored,
attractively served soup cannot fail to meet the approval of any family
when it is served as the first course of the meal.

5. GENERAL CLASSES OF SOUP.--Soups are named in various ways, according
to material, quality, etc.; but the two purposes for which soup is used
have led to the placing of the numerous kinds into two general classes.
In the first class are grouped those which serve as appetizers, such as
bouillon, consommé, and some other broths and clear soups. In the second
class are included those eaten for their nutritive effect, such as cream
soups, purées, and bisques. From these two classes of soup, the one that
will correspond with the rest of the meal and make it balance properly
is the one to choose. For instance, a light soup that is merely an
appetizer should be served with a heavy dinner, whereas a heavy, highly
nutritious soup should be used with a luncheon or a light meal.

6. ECONOMIC VALUE OF SOUP.--Besides having an important place in the
meal of which it forms a part, soup is very often an economy, for it
affords the housewife a splendid opportunity to utilize many left-overs.
With the French people, who excel in the art of soup making chiefly
because of their clever adaptation of seasoning to foods, their
_pot-au-feu_ is a national institution and every kitchen has its stock
pot. Persons who believe in the strictest food economy use a stock pot,
since it permits left-overs to be utilized in an attractive and
palatable way. In fact, there is scarcely anything in the way of fish,
meat, fowl, vegetables, and cereals that cannot be used in soup making,
provided such ingredients are cared for in the proper way. Very often
the first glance at the large number of ingredients listed in a soup
recipe creates the impression that soup must be a very complicated
thing. Such, however, is not the case. In reality, most of the soup
ingredients are small quantities of things used for flavoring, and it is
by the proper blending of these that appetizing soups are secured.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOUPS

7. The two general classes of soup already mentioned permit of numerous
methods of classification. For instance, soups are sometimes named from
the principal ingredient or an imitation of it, as the names potato
soup, beef soup, macaroni soup, mock-turtle soup testify. Again, both
stimulating and nutritious soups may be divided into thin and thick
soups, thin soups usually being clear, and thick soups, because of their
nature, cloudy. When the quality of soups is considered, they are placed
in still different classes and are called broth, bisque, consommé,
purée, and so on. Another important classification of soups results from
the nationality of the people who use them. While soups are classified
in other ways, it will be sufficient for all practical purposes if the
housewife understands these three principal classes.

8. CLASSES DENOTING CONSISTENCY.--As has already been pointed out, soups
are of only two kinds when their consistency is thought of, namely,
_clear soups_ and _thick soups._

CLEAR SOUPS are those made from carefully cleared stock, or soup
foundation, and flavored or garnished with a material from which the
soup usually takes its name. There are not many soups of this kind,
_bouillon_ and _consommé_ being the two leading varieties, but in order
to be palatable, they require considerable care in making.

THICK SOUPS are also made from stock, but milk, cream, water, or any
mixture of these may also be used as a basis, and to it may be added for
thickening meat, fish, vegetables, eggs, or grain or some other starchy
material. Soups of this kind are often made too thick, and as such soups
are not appetizing, care must be taken to have them just right in
consistency.

9. CLASSES DENOTING QUALITY.--When attention is given to the quality of
soup, this food divides itself into several varieties, namely, _broth,
cream soup, bisque, chowder,_ and _purée._

BROTHS have for their foundation a clear stock. They are sometimes a
thin soup, but other times they are made quite thick with vegetables,
rice, barley, or other material, when they are served as a substantial
part of a meal.

CREAM SOUPS are highly nutritious and are of great variety. They have
for their foundation a thin cream sauce, but to this are always added
vegetables, meat, fish, or grains.

BISQUES are thick, rich soups made from game, fish, or shell fish,
particularly crabs, shrimp, etc. Occasionally, vegetables are used in
soup of this kind.

CHOWDERS are soups that have sea food for their basis. Vegetables and
crackers are generally added for thickening and to impart flavor.

PURÉES are soups made thick partly or entirely by the addition of some
material obtained by boiling an article of food and then straining it to
form a pulp. When vegetables containing starch, such as beans, peas,
lentils, and potatoes, are used for this purpose, it is unnecessary to
thicken the soup with any additional starch; but when meat, fish, or
watery vegetables are used, other thickening is required. To be right, a
purée should be nearly as smooth as thick cream and of the same
consistency.

10. CLASSES TYPICAL OF PARTICULAR COUNTRIES.--Certain kinds of soup have
been made so universally by the people of various countries that they
have come to be regarded as national dishes and are always thought of as
typical of the particular people by whom they are used. Among the best
known of these soups are _Borsch,_ a soup much used by the Russian
people and made from beets, leeks, and sour cream; _Daikan,_ a Japanese
soup in which radishes are the principal ingredient; _Kouskous,_ a soup
favored by the people of Abyssinia and made from vegetables; _Krishara_,
a rice soup that finds much favor in India; _Lebaba,_ an Egyptian soup
whose chief ingredients are honey, butter, and raisin water; _Minestra,_
an Italian soup in which vegetables are combined; _Mulligatawny,_ an
Indian rice soup that is flavored with curry; _Potroka,_ another kind of
Russian soup, having giblets for its foundation; _Soljinka,_ an entirely
different variety of Russian soup, being made from fish and onions; and
_Tarhonya,_ a Hungarian soup containing noodles.

       *       *       *       *       *


STOCK FOR SOUP

USES AND VARIETIES OF STOCK

11. MEANING AND USE OF STOCK.--In order that soup-making processes may
be readily grasped by the housewife, she should be thoroughly familiar
with what is meant by _stock,_ which forms the foundation of many soups.
In looking into the derivation of this term, it will be found that the
word stock comes from an Anglo-Saxon word meaning to stick, and that
while it has many different uses, the idea of fixedness is expressed in
every one of them. As is generally known, a stock of anything means a
reserve supply of that thing stored away for future use. When applied to
soup, stock is similar in meaning, for it refers to material stored or
prepared in such a way that it may be kept for use in the making of
certain kinds of soup. In a more definite sense, soup stock may be
regarded as a liquid containing the juices and soluble parts of meat,
bone, and vegetables, which have been extracted by long, slow cooking
and which can be utilized in the making of soups, sauces, and gravies.

12. Soups in which stock is utilized include all the varieties made from
beef, veal, mutton, and poultry. If clear stock is desired for the
making of soup, only fresh meat and bones should be used and all
material that will discolor the liquid in any way carefully avoided. For
ordinary, unclarified soups, the trimmings and bones of roast, steak, or
chops and the carcass of fowl can generally be utilized. However, very
strongly flavored meat, such as mutton, or the fat from mutton should be
used sparingly, if at all, on account of the strong flavor that
it imparts.

13. VARIETIES OF STOCK.--Several kinds of stock are utilized in the
making of soup, and the kind to employ depends on the soup desired. In
determining the kind of stock required for the foundation of a soup, the
housewife may be guided by the following classification:

FIRST STOCK is made from meat and bones and then clarified and used for
well-flavored, clear soups.

SECOND STOCK is made from the meat and the bones that remain after the
first stock is strained off. More water is added to the remaining
material, and this is then cooked with vegetables, which supply the
needed flavor. Such stock serves very well for adding flavor to a
nutritious soup made from vegetables or cereal foods.

HOUSEHOLD STOCK is made by cooking meat and bones, either fresh or
cooked, with vegetables or other material that will impart flavor and
add nutritive value. Stock of this kind is used for ordinary soups.

BONE STOCK is made from meat bones to which vegetables are added for
flavor, and it is used for making any of the ordinary soups.

VEGETABLE STOCK is made from either dried or fresh vegetables or both.
Such stock is employed in making vegetable soups.

GAME STOCK is made from the bones and trimmings of game to which
vegetables are added for flavor. This kind of stock is used for making
game soups.

FISH STOCK is made from fish or fish trimmings to which vegetables are
added for flavor. Shell fish make especially good stock of this kind.
Fish stock is employed for making chowders and fish soups.

14. ADDITIONAL USES OF STOCK.--As has already been shown, stock is used
principally as a foundation for certain varieties of soup. This
material, however, may be utilized in many other ways, being especially
valuable in the use of left-over foods. Any bits of meat or fowl that
are left over can be made into an appetizing dish by adding thickened
stock to them and serving the combination over toast or rice. In fact, a
large variety of made dishes can be devised if there is stock on hand to
add for flavor. The convenience of a supply of stock will be apparent
when it is realized that gravy or sauce for almost any purpose can be
made from the contents of the stock pot.

15. SOUP EXTRACTS.--If a housewife does not have sufficient time to go
through the various processes involved in making soup, her family need
not be deprived of this article of diet, for there are a number of
concentrated meat and vegetable extracts on the market for making soups
quickly. The _meat extracts_ are made of the same flavoring material as
that which is drawn from meat in the making of stock. Almost all the
liquid is evaporated and the result is a thick, dark substance that must
be diluted greatly with water to obtain the basis for a soup or a broth.
Some of the _vegetable extracts,_ such as Japanese soy and English
marmite, are so similar in appearance and taste to the meat extracts as
to make it quite difficult to detect any difference. Both varieties of
these extracts may be used for sauces and gravies, as well as for soups,
but it should be remembered that they are not highly nutritious and are
valuable merely for flavoring.


THE STOCK POT

16. NATURE, USE, AND CARE OF STOCK POT.--Among the utensils used for
cooking there is probably none more convenient and useful than the stock
pot. It is nothing more or less than a covered crock or pot like that
shown in Fig. 1, into which materials that will make a well-flavored
stock are put from time to time. From such a supply, stock can be drawn
when it is needed for soup; then, when some is taken out, more water
and materials may be added to replenish the pot. The stock pot should be
made of either enamel or earthenware, since a metal pot of any kind is
liable to impart flavor to the food. Likewise, its lid, or cover, should
be tight-fitting, for then it will be an excellent utensil in which the
materials may be stored until they are to be heated, when they can be
poured or dipped into a saucepan or a kettle.

The stock pot, like any other utensil used for making soup, should
receive considerable care, as it must be kept scrupulously clean. No
stock pot should ever be allowed to stand from day to day without being
emptied, thoroughly washed, and then exposed to the air for a while
to dry.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

17. FOOD SUITABLE FOR THE STOCK POT.--Some one has said that nothing
edible is out of place in the stock pot, and, to a great extent, this
statement is true. Here should be put the bones from the cooked roast,
as well as the trimmings cut from it before it went into the oven; the
tough ends and bones of beefsteak; the trimmings or bones sent home by
the butcher; the carcasses of fowls, together with any remains of
stuffing and tough or left-over bits of meat; any left-over vegetables;
the remains of the gravy or any unsweetened sauces used for meats or
vegetables; the spoonful of left-over hash, stew, or stuffing; a
left-over stuffed tomato or pepper; and the water in which rice,
macaroni, or certain vegetables have been cooked. Of course, plain water
can be used for the liquid, but the water in which such vegetables as
cauliflower, carrots, beans, peas, asparagus, celery, and potatoes have
been cooked is especially desirable, for, besides imparting flavor to
the soup, it adds valuable mineral salts. However, when such things as
left-over cereals, rice, macaroni, and green vegetables are to be
utilized in soup, they should not be put in the stock pot; rather, they
should be added to the stock after it is removed from the pot.


MAKING OF SOUP

PRINCIPAL INGREDIENTS

18. The making of the stock that is used in soup is the most important
of the soup-making processes; in fact, these two things--soup and
stock--may be regarded, in many instances, as one and the same. The
housewife will do well, therefore, to keep in mind that whenever
reference is made to the making of soup usually stock making is also
involved and meant. Before the actual soup-making processes are taken
up, however, the nature of the ingredients required should be well
understood; for this reason, suitable meats and vegetables, which are
the principal ingredients in soups, are first discussed.

19. MEAT USED FOR SOUP MAKING.--With the exception of pork, almost every
kind of meat, including beef, veal, mutton, lamb, game, and poultry, is
used for soup making. Occasionally, ham is employed, but most other
forms of pork are seldom used to any extent. When soup stock is made
from these meats, they may be cooked separately, or, as a combination is
often an improvement over a single variety, several kinds may be
combined. For instance, mutton used alone makes a very strongly flavored
soup, so that it is usually advisable to combine this kind of meat with
another meat that has a less distinctive flavor. On the other hand, veal
alone does not have sufficient flavor, so it must be combined with lamb,
game, fowl, or some other well-flavored meat.

20. Certain cuts of meats are preferred to others in the making of
soups, because of the difference in their texture. The tender cuts,
which are the expensive ones, should not be used for soups, as they do
not produce enough flavor. The tough cuts, which come from the muscles
that the animal uses constantly and that therefore grow hard and tough,
are usually cheaper, but they are more suitable, because they contain
the material that makes the best soup. The pieces best adapted to soup
making are the shins, the shanks, the lower part of the round, the neck,
the flank, the shoulder, the tail, and the brisket. The parts of the
animal from which these cuts are taken are clearly shown in Fig. 2.
Although beef is obtained from the animal shown, the same cuts come from
practically the same places in other animals. Stock made from one of
these cuts will be improved if a small amount of the fat of the meat is
cooked with it; but to avoid soup that is too greasy, any excess fat
that remains after cooking should be carefully removed. The marrow of
the shin bone is the best fat for soup making.

If soup is to be made from fish, a white variety should be selected. The
head and trimmings may be utilized, but these alone are not sufficient,
because soup requires some solid pieces of meat. The same is true of
meat bones; they are valuable only when they are used with meat, an
equal proportion of bone and meat being required for the best stock.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

21. VEGETABLES USED FOR SOUP MAKING.--In soup making, the housewife has
also a large number of vegetables from which to select, for any
vegetable that has a decided flavor may be used. Among those from which
soups can be made successfully are cabbage, cauliflower, asparagus,
corn, onions, turnips, carrots, parsnips, tomatoes, beans, peas,
lentils, salsify, potatoes, spinach, celery, mushrooms, okra, and even
sweet potatoes. These vegetables are used for two purposes: to provide
flavoring and to form part of the soup itself as well as to furnish
flavor. When they are used simply for flavoring, they are cooked until
their flavor is obtained and then removed from the stock. When they are
to form part of the soup, as well as to impart flavor, they are left in
the soup in small pieces or made into a purée and eaten with the soup.

Attention, too, must be given to the condition of the vegetables that
are used in soup. The fresh vegetables that are used should be in
perfect condition. They should have no decayed places that might taint
or discolor the soups, and they should be as crisp and solid as
possible. If they are somewhat withered or faded, they can be freshened
by allowing them to stand in cold water for a short time. When dried
vegetables are to be used for soup making, they should first be soaked
well in cold water and then, before being added to the stock, either
partly cooked or entirely cooked and made into a purée.


PROCESSES INVOLVED IN MAKING STOCK

22. Although the making of stock or soup is a simple process, it must
necessarily be a rather long one. The reason for this is that all flavor
cannot be drawn from the soup materials unless they are subjected to
long, slow cooking at a temperature lower than the boiling point. With
this point definitely understood, the actual work of soup making may
be taken up.

23. COOKING MEAT FOR SOUP.--When clear stock is to be made from fresh
meat, the required quantity of meat should be cut into small pieces
rather than large ones, so as to expose as much of the surface as
possible from which the flavor of the meat can be drawn. A little more
flavor is obtained and a brown color developed if a small part, perhaps
a fourth, of the pieces of meat are first browned in the frying pan. The
pieces thus browned, together with the pieces of fresh meat, are put
into a kettle and a quart of cold water for each pound of meat is
then added.

The reason for using cold rather than hot water will be evident when the
action of water on raw meat is understood. The fiber of meat is composed
of innumerable thread-like tubes containing the flavor that is to be
drawn out into the water in order to make the stock appetizing. When the
meat is cut, these tiny tubes are laid open. Putting the meat thus
prepared into cold water and allowing it to heat gradually tend to
extract the contents of the tubes. This material is known as
_extractives_, and it contains in its composition stimulating
substances. On the other hand, plunging the meat into hot water and
subjecting it quickly to a high temperature will coagulate the protein
in the tissue and prevent the extractives from leaving the tubes.

24. To obtain the most flavor from meat that is properly prepared, it
should be put over a slow fire and allowed to come gradually to the
boiling point. As the water approaches the boiling point, a scum
consisting of coagulated albumin, blood, and foreign material will begin
to rise to the top, but this should be skimmed off at once and the
process of skimming continued until no scum remains. When the water
begins to boil rapidly, either the fire should be lowered or the kettle
should be removed to a cooler part of the stove so that the water will
bubble only enough for a very slight motion to be observed. Throughout
the cooking, the meat should not be allowed to boil violently nor to
cease bubbling entirely.

The meat should be allowed to cook for at least 4 hours, but longer if
possible. If, during this long cooking, too much water evaporates, more
should be added to dilute the stock. The salt that is required for
seasoning may be added just a few minutes before the stock is removed
from the kettle. However, it is better to add the salt, together with
the other seasonings, after the stock has been drawn off, for salt, like
heat, has a tendency to harden the tissues of meat and to prevent the
flavor from being readily extracted.

25. Although, as has been explained, flavor is drawn from the fibers of
meat by boiling it slowly for a long time, the cooking of meat for soup
does not extract the nourishment from it to any extent. In reality, the
meat itself largely retains its original nutritive value after it has
been cooked for soup, although a small quantity of protein is drawn out
and much of the fat is removed. This meat should never be wasted;
rather, it should be used carefully with materials that will take the
place of the flavor that has been cooked from it.

26. FLAVORING STOCK.--It is the flavoring of stock that indicates real
skill in soup making, so this is an extremely important part of the
work. In fact, the large number of ingredients found in soup recipes
are, as a rule, the various flavorings, which give the distinctive
flavor and individuality to a soup. However, the housewife whose larder
will not produce all of the many things that may be called for in a
recipe should not feel that she must forego making a particular kind of
soup. Very often certain spices or certain flavoring materials may be
omitted without any appreciable difference, or something that is on hand
may be substituted for an ingredient that is lacking.

27. The flavorings used most for soup include cloves, peppercorns, red,
black, and white pepper, paprika, bay leaf, sage, marjoram, thyme,
summer savory, tarragon, celery seed, fennel, mint, and rosemary. While
all of these are not absolutely necessary, the majority of them may well
be kept on the pantry shelf. In addition, a bottle of Worcestershire
sauce should be kept on hand. Celery and parsley, which are also much
used for flavoring, can usually be purchased fresh, but as they are
scarce at times it is advisable to dry some of the leaves during the
season when they can be secured, so as to have a supply when they are
not in the market. A small amount of lemon peel often improves soup, so
some of this should be kept in store. Another group of vegetables that
lend themselves admirably to soup flavoring includes leeks, shallots,
chives, garlic, and onions, all of which belong to the same family. They
must be used judiciously, however, as a strong flavor of any of them is
offensive to most persons.

28. As many of the flavorings used for soup lose their strength when
they are exposed to the air, every effort should be made to keep them in
good condition. Many of them can be kept an indefinite length of time if
they are placed in tightly closed metal boxes or glass jars. Flavorings
and spices bought from the grocer or the druggist in paper packages
should be transferred to, and enclosed in, a receptacle that will not
allow them to deteriorate. If proper attention is given to these
materials, the supply will not have to be replenished often; likewise,
the cost of a sufficient number to produce the proper flavorings will be
very slight.

29. In the use of any of the flavorings mentioned or the strongly
flavored vegetables, care should be taken not to allow any one
particular flavor to predominate. Each should be used in such quantity
that it will blend well with the others. A very good way in which to fix
spices and herbs that are to flavor soup is to tie them in a small piece
of cheesecloth and drop the bag thus made into the soup pot. When
prepared in this way, they will remain together, so that, while the
flavor can be cooked out, they can be more readily removed from the
liquid than if they are allowed to spread through the contents of the
pot. Salt, which is, of course, always used to season soup, should be
added in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful to each quart of liquid.

30. REMOVING GREASE FROM SOUP.--A greasy soup is always unpalatable.
Therefore, a very important feature of soup making, whether a thin or a
thick soup is being made, is the removal of all grease. Various ways of
removing grease have been devised, depending on whether the soup is hot
or cold. In the case of hot or warm soup, all the grease that it is
possible to remove with a spoon may be skimmed from the top, and the
remainder then taken up with a piece of clean blotting paper,
tissue-paper, or absorbent cotton. Another plan, by which the fat may be
hardened and then collected, consists in tying a few small pieces of ice
in a piece of cloth and drawing them over the surface of the soup. A
very simple method is to allow the soup or stock to become cold, and
then remove the fat, which collects on the top and hardens, by merely
lifting off the cake that forms.

31. CLEARING SOUP.--Sometimes it is desired to improve the appearance of
soup stock, particularly a small amount of soup that is to be served at
a very dainty luncheon or dinner. In order to do this, the stock may be
treated by a certain process that will cause it to become clear. After
being cleared, it may be served as a thin soup or, if it is heavy
enough, it may be made into a clear, sparkling jelly into which many
desirable things may be molded for salad or for a dish to accompany a
heavy course. Clearing soup is rather extravagant; however, while it
does not improve the taste, it does improve the appearance.

A very satisfactory way in which to clear stock is to use egg whites and
crushed egg shell. To each quart of cold stock should be added the
crushed shell and a slightly beaten egg white. These should be mixed
well, placed on the fire, and the mixture stirred constantly until it
boils. As the egg coagulates, some of the floating particles in the
stock are caught and carried to the top, while others are carried to the
bottom by the particles of shell as they settle. After the mixture has
boiled for 5 or 10 minutes, the top should be skimmed carefully and the
stock then strained through a fine cloth. When it has been reheated, the
cleared stock will be ready to serve.

32. THICKENING SOUP.--Although thin, clear soups are preferred by some
and are particularly desirable for their stimulating effect, thick soups
find much favor when they are used to form a substantial part of a meal.
Besides giving consistency to soup, thickening usually improves the
flavor, but its chief purpose is to give nutritive value to this food.
In fact, whenever a soup is thickened, its food value is increased by
the ingredient thus added. For this reason, it is advisable to thicken
soups when they are desired for any other purpose than their
stimulating effect.

33. The substance used to thicken soups may be either a starchy material
or food or a purée of some food. The starchy materials generally used
for this purpose are plain flour, browned flour, corn starch, and
arrowroot flour. Any one of these should be moistened with enough cold
water to make a mixture that will pour easily, and then added to the hot
liquid while the soup is stirred constantly to prevent the formation of
lumps. A sufficient amount of this thickening material should be used to
make a soup of the consistency of heavy cream.

The starchy foods that are used for thickening include rice, barley,
oatmeal, noodles, tapioca, sago, and macaroni. Many unusual and fancy
forms of macaroni can be secured, or the plain varieties of Italian
pastes may be broken into small pieces and cooked with the soup. When
any of these foods are used, they should be added long enough before the
soup is removed to be cooked thoroughly.

Purées of beans, peas, lentils, potatoes, and other vegetables are
especially desirable for the thickening of soups, for they not only give
consistency, but add nutritive value and flavor as well. Another
excellent thickening may be obtained by beating raw eggs and then adding
them carefully to the soup just before it is to be served. After eggs
have been added for thickening, the soup should not be allowed to boil,
as it is liable to curdle.

34. KEEPING STOCK.--Soup stock, like many other foods, spoils quite
readily. Therefore, in order to keep it for at least a few days, it must
receive proper attention. At all times, the vessel containing stock
should be tightly closed and, especially in warm weather, the stock
should be kept as cold as possible. Stock that is heavy enough to
solidify into a jellylike consistency when it is cold will keep better
than stock that remains liquid. The addition of salt or any spicy
flavoring also helps to keep stock from deteriorating, because these
materials act as preservatives and prevent the action of bacteria that
cause spoiling. Bacteria may be kept from entering soup if, instead of
removing the grease, it is allowed to form in a solid cake over the
top. No matter which of these precautions is taken to prevent stock from
spoiling, it should be heated to boiling point once a day when it is to
be kept for several days.


SERVING SOUP

35. Soup may be correctly served in several different ways, the method
to adopt usually depending on the kind of soup. Thin, clear soups are
generally served in bouillon cups, as shown in Fig. 3, which may be
placed on the table immediately before the family assembles or passed
after the members are seated. Heavier soups may be served at the table
from a soup tureen, or each person's portion may be served before the
family comes to the table. For soups of this kind, the flat soup plate,
like that shown in Fig. 4, is found preferable.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

The spoon to be served with soup also depends on the kind of soup, but a
larger spoon than a teaspoon is always necessary. When soup is served in
a soup plate, a dessert spoon is used, as will be observed in Fig. 4. A
bouillon spoon is the best kind to use with any thin soup served in
bouillon cups. Such a spoon, as shown in Fig. 3, is about the length of
a teaspoon, but has a round bowl.

36. To increase the attractiveness of soup and at the same time make it
more appetizing and nutritious, various accompaniments and relishes are
served with it. When the accompaniment is in the form of crackers,
croutons, or bread sticks, they may be passed after the soup is served,
or, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, a few of them may be placed on the
bread-and-butter plate at each person's place. The relishes should be
passed while the soup is being eaten. Plain whipped cream or whipped
cream into which a little mashed pimiento has been stirred adds much to
the flavor and appearance of soup when served on the top of any hot or
cold variety. Then, too, many soups, especially vegetable soups, are
improved in flavor by the addition of a spoonful of grated cheese, which
should be sprinkled into the dish at the time of serving. For this
purpose, a hard, dry cheese, such as Parmesan, which can often be
purchased already grated in bottles, is the most satisfactory.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

37. In summer, clear soups are sometimes served cold, as cold soups are
found more desirable for warm weather than hot ones. However, when a
soup is intended to be hot, it should be hot when it is ready to be
eaten, and every effort should be made to have it in this condition if
an appetizing soup is desired. This can be accomplished if the soup is
thoroughly heated before it is removed from the stove and the dishes in
which it is to be served are warmed before the soup is put into them.

       *       *       *       *       *


RECIPES FOR SOUP AND SOUP ACCOMPANIMENTS

NECESSITY FOR CAREFUL WORK

38. So that the housewife may put into practice the knowledge she has
gained about soup making, there are here given recipes for various kinds
of soup. As will be observed, these recipes are classified according to
the consistency and nature of the soups, all those of one class being
placed in the same group. As it is important, too, for the housewife to
know how to prepare the various accompaniments and garnishes that are
generally served with soup, directions for the making of these are also
given and they follow the soup recipes.

39. In carrying out these recipes, it will be well to note that
exactness in fulfilling the requirements and care in working out the
details of the recipes are essential. These points cannot be ignored in
the making of soup any more than in other parts of cookery, provided
successful results and excellent appearance are desired. It is therefore
wise to form habits of exactness. For instance, when vegetables are to
be cut for soups, they should be cut into pieces of equal size, or, if
they are to be diced, they should be cut so that the dice are alike. All
the pieces must be of the same thickness in order to insure uniform
cooking; if this precaution is not observed, some of the pieces are
likely to overcook and fall to pieces before the others are done.

Strict attention should also be given to the preparation of other
ingredients and the accompaniments. The meat used must be cut very
carefully rather than in ragged, uneven pieces. Noodles, which are often
used in soup, may be of various widths; but all those used at one time
should be uniform in width--that is, all wide or all narrow. If
different widths are used, an impression of careless cutting will be
given. Croutons and bread sticks, to be most satisfactory, should be cut
straight and even, and, in order to toast uniformly, all those made at
one time should be of the same size.


STOCKS AND CLEAR SOUPS

40. Stock for Clear Soup or Bouillon.--A plain, but well-flavored, beef
stock may be made according to the accompanying recipe and used as a
basis for any clear soup served as bouillon without the addition of
anything else. However, as the addition of rice, barley, chopped
macaroni, or any other such food will increase the food value of the
soup, any of them may be supplied to produce a more nutritious soup.
When this stock is served clear, it should be used as the first course
in a comparatively heavy meal.

STOCK FOR CLEAR SOUP OR BOUILLON

4 lb. beef
4 qt. cold water
1 medium-sized onion
1 stalk celery
2 sprigs parsley

6 whole cloves
12 peppercorns
1 bay leaf
Salt
Pepper

Cut the meat into small pieces. Pour the cold water over it, place on a
slow fire, and let it come to a boil. Skim off all scum that rises to
the top. Cover tightly and keep at the simmering point for 6 to 8 hours.
Then strain and remove the fat. Add the onion and celery cut into
pieces, the parsley, cloves, peppercorns, and bay leaf. Simmer gently
for about 20 minutes. Add salt and pepper to taste. Strain through
a cloth.

41. Household Stock.--If it is desired to make a stock that may be kept
on hand constantly and that may be used as a foundation for various
kinds of soups, sauces, and gravies, or as a broth for making casserole
dishes, household stock will be found very satisfactory. Such stock made
in quantity and kept in a sufficiently cool place may be used for
several days before it spoils. Since most of the materials used in this
stock cannot be put to any other particularly good use, and since the
labor required in making it is slight, this may be regarded as an
extremely economical stock.

HOUSEHOLD STOCK

3 qt. cold water
3 lb. meat (trimmings of fresh
meat, bones, and tough pieces
from roasts, steaks, etc.)
1 medium-sized onion
4 cloves
6 peppercorns
Herbs
Salt
Pepper

Pour the cold water over the meat and bones and put them on the fire to
cook. When they come to a boil skim well. Then cover and simmer 4 to 6
hours. Add the onion, cloves, peppercorns, and herbs and cook for
another hour. Add salt and pepper to taste. Strain and set aside to
cool. Remove the fat.

42. White Stock.--An especially nice broth having a delicate flavor and
generally used for special functions when an attractive meal is being
served to a large number of persons is made from veal and fowl and known
as white stock. If allowed to remain in a cool place, this stock will
solidify, and then it may be used as the basis for a jellied meat
dish or salad.

WHITE STOCK

5 lb. veal
1 fowl, 3 or 4 lb.
8 qt. cold water
2 medium-sized onions
2 Tb. butter
2 stalks celery
1 blade mace
Salt
Pepper

Cut the veal and fowl into pieces and add the cold water. Place on a
slow fire, and let come gradually to the boiling point. Skim carefully
and place where it will simmer gently for 6 hours. Slice the onions,
brown slightly in the butter, and add to the stock with the celery and
mace. Salt and pepper to suit taste. Cook 1 hour longer and then strain
and cool. Remove the fat before using.

43. Consommé.--One of the most delicious of the thin, clear broths is
consommé. This is usually served plain, but any material that will not
cloud it, such as finely diced vegetables, green peas, tiny pieces of
fowl or meat, may, if desired, be added to it before it is served. As a
rule, only a very small quantity of such material is used for
each serving.

CONSOMMÉ

4 lb. lower round of beef
4 lb. shin of veal
1/4 c. butter
8 qt. cold water
1 small carrot
1 large onion
2 stalks celery
12 peppercorns
5 cloves
4 sprigs parsley
Pinch summer savory
Pinch thyme
2 bay leaves
Salt
Pepper

Cut the beef and veal into small pieces. Put the butter and meat into
the stock kettle, and stir over the fire until the meat begins to brown.
Add the cold water, and let come to the boiling point. Skim carefully
and let simmer for 6 hours. Cut the vegetables into small pieces and
add to the stock with the spices and herbs. Cook for 1 hour, adding salt
and pepper to suit taste. Strain and cool. Remove the fat and clear
according to directions previously given.

44. Tomato Bouillon.--It is possible to make a clear tomato soup without
meat stock, but the recipe here given, which is made with meat stock,
has the advantage of possessing a better flavor. The tomato in this
bouillon lends an agreeable color and flavor and affords a change from
the usual clear soup. Cooked rice, macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli
may be added to tomato bouillon to provide an additional quantity of
nutrition and vary the plain soup.

TOMATO BOUILLON
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 qt, meat stock
1 tsp. salt
1 Tb. sugar

1/4 tsp. pepper
1 can tomatoes

Heat the stock, and to it add the salt, sugar, and pepper. Rub the
tomatoes through a fine sieve, and add them to the stock. Cook together
for a few minutes and serve.

HEAVY THICK SOUPS

45. Julienne Soup.--A very good way in which to utilize any small
quantities of vegetables that may be in supply but are not sufficient to
serve alone is to use them in julienne soup. For soup of this kind,
vegetables are often cut into fancy shapes, but this is a more or less
wasteful practice and should not be followed, as tiny strips or dice cut
finely and carefully are quite as agreeable. The vegetables do not add a
large amount of nutriment to this soup, but they introduce into the soup
mineral salts that the soups would otherwise not have and they also add
a variety of flavor.

JULIENNE SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. mixed vegetables
1/2 tsp. salt
1 qt. stock
1/4 tsp. pepper

Cut into tiny dice or into strips such vegetables as celery, carrots,
and turnips, making them as nearly the same size and shape as possible.
Put them on to cook in enough boiling salted water to cover well. Cook
until they are soft enough to be pierced with a fork, but do not lose
their shape. Drain off the water and put the vegetables into the stock.
Bring to the boiling point, season with the pepper, and serve.

46. Ox-Tail Soup.--The use of ox tails for soup helps to utilize a part
of the beef that would ordinarily be wasted, and, as a rule, ox tails
are comparatively cheap. Usually the little bits of meat that cook off
the bones are allowed to remain in the soup. Variety may be obtained by
the addition of different kinds of vegetables.

OX-TAIL SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

2 ox tails
1 large onion
1 Tb. beef drippings
4 qt. cold water
1 Tb. mixed herbs
4 peppercorns
1 Tb. salt

Wash and cut up the ox tails, separating them at the joints. Slice the
onion and brown it and half of the ox tails in the beef drippings. When
they are browned, put them and the remainder of the ox tails into a
kettle. Add the water and the herbs and peppercorns tied in a little
piece of cheesecloth. Bring to the boiling point, and then simmer for 3
to 4 hours or until the meat separates from the bones. Add the salt an
hour before serving the soup. Remove the fat and serve some of the
nicest joints with the soup. If vegetables are desired, they should be
diced and added 20 minutes before serving, so that they will be
cooked soft.

47. Mulligatawny Soup.--If a highly seasoned soup is desired,
mulligatawny, although not a particularly cheap soup, will be found very
satisfactory. The curry powder that is used adds an unusual flavor that
is pleasing to many people, but if it is not desired, it may be omitted.

MULLIGATAWNY SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

3 lb. chicken
1 lb. veal
4 qt. cold water
2 onions
1 Tb. butter
4 peppercorns
4 cloves
1 stalk celery
1 Tb. curry powder
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 lemon

Cut up the chicken and veal, add the cold water to them, and place over
a slow fire. Slice the onions and brown them in the butter. Add them and
the peppercorns, cloves, chopped celery, and curry powder stirred to a
smooth paste with a little water to the meat. Simmer together slowly
until the chicken is tender. Remove the meat from the bones and cut it
into small pieces. Put the bones into the kettle and simmer for another
hour. Strain the liquid from the veal and bones and remove the fat. Add
the salt, pepper, chicken, and the juice of the lemon. Return to the
fire and cook for a few minutes. Serve with a tablespoonful or two of
cooked rice in each soup dish.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

48. Noodle Soup.--The addition of noodles to soup increases its food
value to a considerable extent by providing carbohydrate from the flour
and protein from the egg and flour. Noodle soup is a very attractive
dish if the noodles are properly made, for then they will not cause the
soup to become cloudy when they are put into it. Little difficulty will
be experienced if the directions here given for making noodles are
followed explicitly.

NOODLE SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 egg
1 Tb. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
Flour
1 qt. household stock
3 sprigs parsley
1 small onion

To make noodles, beat the egg slightly, add to it the milk, and stir in
the salt and enough flour to make a stiff dough. Toss upon a floured
board and roll very thin. Allow the dough to dry for hour or more, and
then, as shown in Fig. 5, cut it into strips about 4 inches wide. Place
several strips together, one on top of the other, and roll them up
tight, in the manner indicated. Cut each roll into thin slices with a
sharp knife, as shown in Fig. 6. When the slices are separated the
noodles should appear as shown in the pile at the right. If it is
desired not to follow this plan, the dough may be rolled into a thin
sheet and cut into strips with a noodle cutter.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

Such a supply of noodles may be used at once, or they may be dried
thoroughly and sealed tightly in a jar for future use. The very dry
ones, however, require a little longer cooking than those which are
freshly made. With the noodles prepared, heat the stock with the parsley
and onion chopped very fine. Add the noodles and cook for 15 or 20
minutes or until the noodles are thoroughly cooked.

Rice, barley, macaroni, and other starchy materials may be added to
stock in the same way as the noodles.

49. Vegetable Soup With Noodles.--The combination of noodles and
vegetables in soup is a very excellent one, since the vegetables add
flavor and the noodles add nutritive value. If the vegetables given in
the accompanying recipe cannot be readily obtained, others may be
substituted.

VEGETABLE SOUP WITH NOODLES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 carrot
1 onion
1 turnip
1 stalk celery
1 c. boiling water
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 c. noodles
2 sprigs parsley
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 qt. household stock

Dice the vegetables and put them on to cook with the boiling water and
the salt. Cook for a few minutes or until partly soft. Add the noodles,
parsley, pepper, and stock and cook for 15 minutes longer. Serve.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

CREAM SOUPS

50. Soups classed as cream soups consist of a thin white sauce to which
is added a vegetable in the form of a purée or cut into small pieces.
Because of their nature, cream soups are usually high in food value; but
they are not highly flavored, so their use is that of supplying
nutrition rather than stimulating the appetite. Considerable variety can
be secured in cream soups, for there are scarcely any vegetables that
cannot be used in the making of them. Potatoes, corn, asparagus,
spinach, peas, tomatoes, and onions are the vegetables that are used
oftenest, but cream soups may also be made of vegetable oysters, okra,
carrots, watercress, celery, cabbage, cauliflower, beans, lentils, and
dried peas. The vegetables may be cooked especially for the soup, or
left-over or canned vegetables may be utilized. It is an excellent plan
to cook more than enough of some vegetables for one day, so that some
will be left over and ready for soup the next day.

If the vegetable is not cut up into small pieces, it must be put through
a sieve and made into the form of a purée before it can be added to the
liquid. Two kinds of sieves for this purpose are shown in Fig. 7. It
will be observed that with the large, round sieve, a potato masher must
be used to mash the vegetables, the pulp of which is caught by the
utensil in which the sieve is held. In making use of the smaller sieve,
or ricer, the vegetable is placed in it and then mashed by pressing the
top down over the contents with the aid of the handles.

51. THIN WHITE SAUCE.--The liquid for cream soups should be thin white
sauce made entirely of milk or of milk and cream. The flavor of the soup
will be improved, however, by using with the milk some meat stock, or
the stock that remains from cooking celery, asparagus, or any vegetables
that will lend a good flavor to the soup. The recipe here given makes a
sauce that may be used for any kind of cream soup.

THIN WHITE SAUCE

1 pt. milk, or milk and cream or stock
1 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour

Heat the liquid, salt, and butter in a double boiler. Stir the flour and
some of the cold liquid that has been reserved to a perfectly smooth,
thin paste and add to the hot liquid. Stir constantly after adding the
flour, so that no lumps will form. When the sauce becomes thick, it is
ready for the addition of any flavoring material that will make a
palatable soup. If thick material, such as any vegetable in the form of
a purée, rice, or potato, is used without additional liquid, only half
as much flour will be required to thicken the sauce.

52. CREAM-OF-POTATO SOUP.--Because of the large quantity of carbohydrate
derived from the potato, cream-of-potato soup is high in food value. For
persons who are fond of the flavor of the potato, this makes a delicious
soup and one that may be served as the main dish in a light meal.

CREAM-OF-POTATO SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 slices of onion
1 sprig parsley
2 medium-sized potatoes
1 c. milk
1 c. potato water
1 Tb. flour
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Cook the onion and parsley with the potatoes, and, when cooked soft,
drain and mash. Make a sauce of the milk, potato water, flour, and
butter. Season with the salt and pepper, add the mashed potato,
and serve.

53. CREAM-OF-CORN SOUP.--The flavor of corn is excellent in a cream
soup, the basis of the soup being milk, butter, and flour. Then, too,
the addition of the corn, which is comparatively high in food value,
makes a very nutritious soup.

CREAM-OF-CORN SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
1 Tb. butter
1 Tb. flour
1 c. canned corn
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Make a white sauce of the milk, butter, and flour. Force the corn
through a colander or a sieve, and add the purée to the white sauce.
Season with the salt and pepper, and serve.

54. Cream-of-Asparagus Soup.--The asparagus used in cream-of-asparagus
soup adds very little besides flavor, but this is of sufficient value to
warrant its use. If a pinch of soda is used in asparagus soup, there is
less danger of the curdling that sometimes occurs. In making this soup,
the asparagus should be combined with the white sauce just
before serving.

CREAM-OF-ASPARAGUS SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
2 Tb. flour
2 Tb. butter
1 c. asparagus purée
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Add to it the cup of
purée made by forcing freshly cooked or canned asparagus through a
sieve. Season with the salt and pepper, and serve.

55. Cream-of-Spinach Soup.--Although cream-of-spinach soup is not
especially attractive in appearance, most persons enjoy its flavor, and
the soup serves as another way of adding an iron-containing food to the
diet. Children may often be induced to take the soup when they would
refuse the spinach as a vegetable.

CREAM-OF-SPINACH SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
2 Tb. flour
2 Tb. butter
1/2 c. spinach purée
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Add the spinach purée,
made by forcing freshly cooked or canned spinach through a sieve. Season
with the salt and pepper, heat thoroughly, and serve.

56. Cream-of-Pea Soup.--Either dried peas or canned green peas may be
used to make cream-of-pea soup. If dried peas are used, they must first
be cooked soft enough to pass through a sieve. The flavor is quite
different from that of green peas. With the use of green peas, a fair
amount of both protein and carbohydrate is added to the soup, but more
protein is provided when dried peas are used.

CREAM-OF-PEA SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
1 Tb. flour
2 Tb. butter
1/2 c. pea purée
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Put enough freshly
cooked or canned peas through a sieve to make 1/2 cupful of purée. Then
add the pea purée, the salt, and the pepper to the white sauce. Heat
thoroughly and serve.

57. CREAM-OF-TOMATO SOUP.--As a rule, cream-of-tomato soup is popular
with every one. Besides being pleasing to the taste, it is comparatively
high in food value, because its basis is cream sauce. However, the
tomatoes themselves add very little else besides flavor and
mineral salts.

CREAM-OF-TOMATO SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 c. canned tomatoes
1 pt. milk
3 Tb. flour
3 Tb. butter
1/8 tsp. soda
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Force the tomatoes through a sieve and heat them. Make white sauce of
the milk, flour, and butter. Add the soda to the tomatoes, and pour them
slowly into the white sauce, stirring rapidly. If the sauce begins to
curdle, beat the soup quickly with a rotary egg beater. Add the salt and
pepper and serve.

58. CREAM-OF-ONION SOUP.--Many persons who are not fond of onions can
often eat soup made of this vegetable. This is probably due to the fact
that the browning of the onions before they are used in the soup
improves the flavor very decidedly. In addition, this treatment of the
onions gives just a little color to the soup.

CREAM-OF-ONION SOUP
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

4 medium-sized onions
4 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
2-1/2 c. milk
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Slice the onions and brown them in a frying pan with 2 tablespoonfuls of
the butter. Make white sauce of the flour, the remaining butter, and the
milk. Add to this the browned onions, salt, and pepper. Heat thoroughly
and serve.

PURÉES

59. CHESTNUT PURÉE.--There are many recipes for the use of chestnuts in
the making of foods, but probably none is any more popular than that for
chestnut purée. The chestnuts develop a light-tan color in the soup. The
very large ones should be purchased for this purpose, since chestnuts of
ordinary size are very tedious to work with.

CHESTNUT PURÉE
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 c. mashed chestnuts
1 c. milk
2 Tb. flour
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/8 tsp. celery salt
1 c. white stock

Cook Spanish chestnuts for 10 minutes; then remove the shells and skins
and mash the chestnuts. Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter.
Add to this the mashed chestnuts, salt, pepper, celery salt, and stock.
Heat thoroughly and serve.

60. SPLIT-PEA PURÉE.--Dried peas or split peas are extremely high in
food value, and their addition to soup stock makes a highly nutritious
soup of very delightful flavor. Such a purée served in quantity does
nicely for the main dish in a light meal. Instead of the peas, dried
beans or lentils may be used if they are preferred.

SPLIT-PEA PURÉE
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

3/4 c. split peas
1 pt. white stock
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour

Soak the peas overnight, and cook in sufficient water to cover well
until they are soft. When thoroughly soft, drain the water from the peas
and put them through a colander. Heat the stock and add to it the pea
purée, salt, and pepper. Rub the butter and flour together, moisten with
some of the warm liquid, and add to the soup. Cook for a few minutes
and serve.

CHOWDERS

61. CLAM CHOWDER.--The flavor of clams, like that of oysters and other
kinds of sea food, is offensive to some persons, but where this is not
the case, clam chowder is a popular dish of high food value. This kind
of soup is much used in localities where clams are plentiful.

CLAM CHOWDER
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. water
1 qt. clams
1 small onion
1 c. sliced potatoes
1/2 c. stewed tomatoes
1/2 c. diced carrots
1/2 c. diced celery
1-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Add the water to the clams, and pick them over carefully to remove any
shell. Strain the liquid through cheesecloth, and then scald the clams
in it. Remove the clams and cook the vegetables in the liquid until they
are soft. Add the milk, butter, salt, and pepper and return the clams.
Heat thoroughly and serve over crackers.

62. FISH CHOWDER.--An excellent way in which to utilize a small quantity
of fish is afforded by fish chowder. In addition, this dish is quite
high in food value, so that when it is served with crackers, little of
anything else need be served with it to make an entire meal if it be
luncheon or supper. Cod, haddock, or fresh-water fish may be used in the
accompanying recipe.

FISH CHOWDER
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 lb. fish
1 small onion
1 c. sliced potatoes
1/2 c. stewed tomatoes
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. butter
1-1/2 c. milk

Skin the fish, remove the flesh, and cut it into small pieces. Simmer
the head, bones, and skin of the fish and the onion in water for 1/2
hour. Strain, and add to this stock the fish, potatoes, tomatoes, salt,
and pepper. Simmer together until the potatoes are soft. Add the butter
and milk. Serve over crackers.

63. POTATO CHOWDER.--A vegetable mixture such as the one suggested in
the accompanying recipe is in reality not a chowder, for this form of
soup requires sea food for its basis. However, when it is impossible to
procure the sea food, potato chowder does nicely as a change from the
usual soup. This chowder differs in no material way from soup stock in
this form.

POTATO CHOWDER
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1-1/2 c. sliced potatoes
1 small onion, sliced
1 c. water
1-1/2 c. milk
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. butter

Cook the potatoes and onion in the water until they are soft, but not
soft enough to fall to pieces. Rub half of the potatoes through a sieve
and return to the sliced ones. Add the milk, salt, pepper, and butter.
Cook together for a few minutes and serve.

64. CORN CHOWDER.--The addition of corn to potato chowder adds variety
of flavor and makes a delicious mixture of vegetables. This dish is
rather high in food value, especially if the soup is served over
crackers. A small amount of tomato, although not mentioned in the
recipe, may be added to this combination to improve the flavor.

CORN CHOWDER
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. sliced potatoes
1 small onion, sliced
1 c. water
1 c. canned corn
1-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Cook the potatoes and onions in the water until they are soft. Add the
corn, milk, butter, salt, and pepper, and cook together for a few
minutes. Serve over crackers.


SOUP ACCOMPANIMENTS AND GARNISHES

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

65. The soup course of a meal is a more or less unattractive one, but it
may be improved considerably if some tempting thing in the way of a
garnish or an accompaniment is served with it. But whatever is selected
to accompany soup should be, in a great measure, a contrast to it in
both consistency and color. The reason why a difference in consistency
is necessary is due to the nature of soup, which, being liquid in form,
is merely swallowed and does not stimulate the flow of the gastric
juices by mastication. Therefore, the accompaniment should be something
that requires chewing and that will consequently cause the digestive
juices, which respond to the mechanical action of chewing, to flow. The
garnish may add the color that is needed to make soup attractive. The
green and red of olives and radishes or of celery and radishes make a
decided contrast, so that when any of these things are served with soup,
an appetizing first course is the result. It is not necessary to serve
more than one of them, but if celery and radishes or celery, radishes,
and olives can be combined in the same relish dish, they become more
attractive than when each is served by itself.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

66. RADISHES AND CELERY.--Before radishes and celery are used on the
table, whether with soup or some other part of a meal, they should be
put into cold water and allowed to stand for some time, so that they
will be perfectly crisp when they are served. In the case of radishes,
the tops and roots should first be cut from them, and the radishes then
scrubbed thoroughly. They may be served without any further treatment,
or they may be prepared to resemble flowers, as is shown in Fig. 8. This
may be done by peeling the red skin back to show the white inside, and
then cutting the sections to look like the petals of a flower. Little
difficulty will be experienced in preparing radishes in this artistic
way if a sharp knife is used, for, with a little practice, the work can
be done quickly and skilfully.

67. Celery that is to be served with soup may be prepared in two ways,
as Fig. 9 illustrates. The stems may be pulled from the stalk and served
separately, as in the group on the right, or the stalk may be cut down
through the center with a knife into four or more pieces, as shown at
the left of the illustration. The first of these methods is not so good
as the second, for by it one person gets all of the tender heart and the
coarse outside stems are left for all the others. By the second method,
every piece consists of some of the heart and some of the outside stems
attached to the root and makes a similar serving for each person.
Whichever way is adopted, however, the celery should be scrubbed and
cleansed thoroughly. This is often a difficult task, because the dirt
sticks tightly between the stems. Still, an effort should be made to
have the celery entirely free from dirt before it goes to the table. A
few tender yellow leaves may be left on the pieces to improve the
appearance of the celery.

68. CRACKERS.--Various kinds of wafers and crackers can be purchased to
serve with soup, and the selection, as well as the serving of them, is
entirely a matter of individual taste. One point, however, that must not
be overlooked is that crackers of any kind must be crisp in order to be
appetizing. Dry foods of this sort absorb moisture from the air when
they are exposed to it and consequently become tough. As heat drives off
this moisture and restores the original crispness, crackers should
always be heated before they are served. Their flavor can be improved by
toasting them until they are light brown in color.

69. CROUTONS.--As has already been learned, croutons are small pieces of
bread that have been fried or toasted to serve with soup. These are
usually made in the form of cubes, or dice, as is shown in the front
group in Fig. 10; but they may be cut into triangles, circles, ovals,
hearts, or, in fact, any fancy shape, by means of small cutters that can
be purchased for such purposes. The bread used for croutons should not
be fresh bread, as such bread does not toast nor fry very well;
left-over toast, stale bread, or slices of bread that have been cut from
the loaf and not eaten are usually found more satisfactory. If the
croutons are not made from slices already cut, the bread should be cut
into slices 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick, and, after the crusts have been
closely trimmed, the slices should be cut into cubes. When the cubes
have been obtained, they may be put into a shallow pan and toasted on
all sides quickly, placed in a frying basket and browned in deep fat, or
put into a frying pan and sautéd in butter. If toast is used, it should
merely be cut in the desired shape.

Various methods of serving croutons are in practice. Some housewives
prefer to place them in the soup tureen and pour the soup over them,
while others like to put a few in each individual serving of soup. A
better plan, however, and one that is much followed, is to serve a
number of croutons on a small plate or dish at each person's place, as
shown in Figs. 3 and 4, for then every one may eat them in the way
preferred.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

70. BREAD STICKS.--A soup accompaniment similar in nature to croutons,
and known as _bread sticks_, is made of pieces of bread 1/2 inch wide,
1/2 inch thick, and several inches long. These are toasted on each side
and are served in place of crackers. A number of them are shown in the
back row in Fig. 10. Variety in bread sticks may be secured by spreading
butter over them before the toasting is begun or by sprinkling grated
cheese over them a few minutes before they are removed from the oven.
Bread sticks are usually served on a bread-and-butter plate to the left
of each person's place at the table.

71. PASTRY STRIPS.--A very appetizing addition to soup may be made by
cutting pastry into narrow strips and then baking these strips in the
oven until they are brown or frying them in deep fat and draining them.
Strips prepared in this way may be served in place of crackers,
croutons, or bread sticks, and are considered delicious by those who are
fond of pastry. Details regarding pastry are given in another Section.

72. SOUP FRITTERS.--If an entirely different kind of soup accompaniment
from those already mentioned is desired, soup fritters will no doubt
find favor. These are made by combining certain ingredients to form a
batter and then dropping small amounts of this into hot fat and frying
them until they are crisp and brown. The accompanying recipe, provided
it is followed carefully, will produce good results.

SOUP FRITTERS

1 egg
2 Tb. milk
3/4 tsp. salt
1/2 c. flour

Beat the egg, and to it add the milk, salt, and flour. Drop the batter
in tiny drops into hot fat, and fry until brown and crisp. Drain on
paper and serve with the soup.

73. EGG BALLS.--To serve with a soup that is well flavored but not
highly nutritious, egg balls are very satisfactory. In addition to
supplying nutrition, these balls are extremely appetizing, and so they
greatly improve a course that is often unattractive. Careful attention
given to the ingredients and the directions in the accompanying recipe
will produce good results.

EGG BALLS

3 yolks of hard-cooked eggs
1/2 tsp. melted butter
Salt and pepper
1 uncooked yolk

Mash the cooked yolks, and to them add the butter, salt, and pepper, and
enough of the uncooked yolk to make the mixture of a consistency to
handle easily. Shape into tiny balls. Roll in the white of egg and then
in flour and sauté in butter. Serve in the individual dishes of soup.

74. FORCEMEAT BALLS.--Another delicious form of accompaniment that
improves certain soups by adding nutrition is forcemeat balls. These
contain various nutritious ingredients combined into small balls, and
the balls are then either sautéd or fried in deep fat. They may be
placed in the soup tureen or in each person's soup.

FORCEMEAT BALLS

1/2 c. fine stale-bread crumbs
1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
White of 1 egg
1/4 tsp. salt
Few grains of pepper
2/3 c. breast of raw chicken or raw fish

Cook the bread crumbs and milk to form a paste, and to this add the
butter, beaten egg white, and seasonings. Pound the chicken or fish to a
pulp, or force it through a food chopper and then through a purée
strainer. Add this to the first mixture. Form into tiny balls. Roll in
flour and either sauté or fry in deep fat. Serve hot.

75. AMERICAN FORCEMEAT BALLS.--A simple kind of forcemeat balls may be
made according to the accompanying recipe. The meat used may be sausage
provided especially for the purpose or some that is left over from a
previous meal. If it is not possible to obtain sausage, some other
highly seasoned meat, such as ham first ground very fine and then
pounded to a pulp, may be substituted.

AMERICAN FORCEMEAT BALLS

1 Tb. butter
1 small onion
1-1/2 c. bread, without crusts
1 egg
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. pepper
Dash of nutmeg
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1/2 c. sausage meat

Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the onion finely chopped. Fry for
several minutes over the fire. Soak the bread in water until thoroughly
softened and then squeeze out all the water. Mix with the bread the egg,
salt, pepper, nutmeg, parsley, and meat, and to this add also the butter
and fried onion. Form small balls of this mixture and sauté them in
shallow fat, fry them in deep fat, or, after brushing them over with
fat, bake them in the oven. Place a few in each serving of soup.


SOUP

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) (_a_) Mention the two purposes that soups serve in a meal, (_b_)
What are the qualities of a good soup?

(2) (_a_) Mention the two general classes of soup. (_b_) Explain and
illustrate how to choose a soup.

(3) Why is soup an economical dish?

(4) (_a_) Explain in full the meaning of stock as applied to soup. (_b_)
For what purposes other than soup making is stock used?

(5) (_a_) What is the value of the stock pot? (_b_) What care should be
given to it?

(6) Mention some of the materials that may be put into the stock pot.

(7) (_a_) Why are the tough cuts of meat more suitable for soup than the
tender ones? (_b_) Name the pieces that are best adapted to soup making.

(8) (_a_) What proportion of bone to meat should be used in making soup
from fresh meat? (_b_) For what two purposes are vegetables used
in soup?

(9) Explain briefly the making of stock from meat.

(10) (_a_) Why should the cooking of the meat for stock be started with
cold water rather than with hot water? (_b_) What disposal should be
made of meat from which stock is made?

(11) (_a_) Of what value are flavorings in the making of soups? (_b_)
What precaution should be taken in the use of flavorings?

(12) Explain how grease may be removed from soup.

(13) How may soup be cleared?

(14) (_a_) For what purposes is thickening used in soups? (_b_) Mention
the materials most used to thicken soups.

(15) What precaution should be taken to keep soup or stock from
spoiling.

(16) What point about the serving of soup should be observed if an
appetizing soup is desired?

(17) What kind of dish is used for serving: (_a_) thin soup? (_b_) thick
soup?

(18) (_a_) What is a cream soup? (_b_) Give the general directions for
making soup of this kind.

(19) (_a_) How may the soup course of a meal be made more attractive?
(_b_) In what ways should soup accompaniments be a contrast to the soup?

(20) (_a_) Explain the making of croutons. (_b_) What is the most
satisfactory way in which to prepare celery that is to be served
with soup?


ADDITIONAL WORK

Plan and prepare a dinner menu from the recipes given in the lessons
that you have studied. Submit the menu for this dinner and give the
order in which you prepared the dishes. In addition, tell the number of
persons you served, as well as what remained after the meal and whether
or not you made use of it for another meal. Send this information with
your answers to the Examination Questions.

       *       *       *       *       *




MEAT (PART 1)

       *       *       *       *       *

MEAT IN THE DIET

VALUE OF MEAT AS FOOD

1. In its broadest sense, MEAT may be considered as "any clean, sound,
dressed or properly prepared edible part of animals that are in good
health at the time of slaughter." However, the flesh of carnivorous
animals--that is, animals that eat the flesh of other animals--is so
seldom eaten by man, that the term meat is usually restricted to the
flesh of all animals except these. But even this meaning of meat is too
broad; indeed, as the term is generally used it refers particularly to
the flesh of the so-called domestic animals, and does not include
poultry, game, fish, and the like. It is in this limited sense that meat
is considered in these Sections, and the kinds to which attention is
given are beef, veal, lamb, mutton, and pork. Meat, including these
varieties, forms one of the principal sources of the family's food
supply. As such, it is valuable chiefly as a food; but, in the form of
broths and extracts made from it, meat stimulates the appetite and
actually assists the flow of gastric juice. Therefore, so that the
outlay for meat will not be greater than it should be and this food will
provide the greatest amount of nourishment, every housewife should be
thoroughly familiar with the place it occupies in the dietary.

2. In the first place, it should be remembered that the food eaten by
human beings comes from two sources--animal and vegetable. The foods of
animal origin, which include milk, eggs, and meat, have a certain
similarity that causes them to be classed together and this is the fact
that they are high-protein foods. Milk is the first protein food fed to
the young, but a little later it is partly replaced by eggs, and,
finally, or in adult life, meat largely takes the place of both. For
this reason, meat has considerable importance in the dietary. In
reality, from this food is obtained the greatest amount of protein that
the average person eats. However, it will be well to note that milk and
eggs, as well as cheese and even cereals and vegetables, can be made to
take the place of meat when the use of less of this food is deemed
advisable.

3. As the work of protein foods is to build and repair tissue, it is on
them that the human race largely depends. Of course, protein also yields
energy; but the amount is so small that if one variety of protein food,
such as meat, were eaten simply to supply energy to the body, huge
quantities of it would be needed to do the same work that a small amount
of less expensive food would accomplish. Some persons have an idea that
meat produces the necessary strength and energy of those who perform
hard work. This is entirely erroneous, because fats and carbohydrates
are the food substances that produce the energy required to do work.
Some kind of protein is, of course, absolutely necessary to the health
of every normal person, but a fact that cannot be emphasized too
strongly is that an oversupply of it does more harm than good.

Scientists have been trying for a long time to determine just how much
of these tissue-building foods is necessary for individuals, but they
have found this a difficult matter. Nevertheless, it is generally
conceded that most persons are likely to use too much rather than too
little of them. It is essential then, not only from the standpoint of
economy, but from the far more important principle of health, that the
modern housewife should know the nutritive value of meats.

4. In her efforts to familiarize herself with these matters, the
housewife should ever remember that meat is the most expensive of the
daily foods of a family. Hence, to get the greatest value for the money
expended, meat must be bought judiciously, cared for properly, and
prepared carefully. Too many housewives trust the not over-scrupulous
butcher to give them the kind of meat they should have, and very often
they do not have a clear idea as to whether it is the best piece that
can be purchased for the desired purpose and for the price that is
asked. Every housewife ought to be so familiar with the various cuts of
meat that she need not depend on any one except herself in the purchase
of this food. She will find that both the buying and the preparation of
meats will be a simple matter for her if she learns these three
important things: (1) From what part of the animal the particular piece
she desires is cut and how to ask for that piece; (2) how to judge a
good piece of meat by its appearance; and (3) what to do with it from
the moment it is purchased until the last bit of it is used.

5. Of these three things, the cooking of meat is the one that demands
the most attention, because it has a decided effect on the quality and
digestibility of this food. Proper cooking is just as essential in the
case of meat as for any other food, for a tender, digestible piece of
meat may be made tough and indigestible by improper preparation, while a
tough piece may be made tender and very appetizing by careful,
intelligent preparation. The cheaper cuts of meat, which are often
scorned as being too tough for use, may be converted into delicious
dishes by the skilful cook who understands how to apply the various
methods of cookery and knows what their effect will be on the
meat tissues.

6. Unfortunately, thorough cooking affects the digestibility of meat
unfavorably; but it is doubtless a wise procedure in some cases because,
as is definitely known, some of the parasites that attack man find their
way into the system through the meat that is eaten. These are carried to
meat from external sources, such as dust, flies, and the soiled hands of
persons handling it, and they multiply and thrive. It is known, too,
that some of the germs that cause disease in the animal remain in its
flesh and are thus transmitted to human beings that eat such meat. If
there is any question as to its good condition, meat must be thoroughly
cooked, because long cooking completely eliminates the danger from
such sources.


STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF MEAT

7. An understanding of the physical structure of meat is essential to
its successful cooking. Meat consists of muscular tissue, or lean;
varying quantities of visible fat that lie between and within the
membranes and tendons; and also particles of fat that are too small to
be distinguished except with the aid of a microscope. The general nature
of the lean part of meat can be determined by examining a piece of it
with merely the unaided eye. On close observation, it will be noted
that, especially in the case of meat that has been cooked, innumerable
thread-like fibers make up the structure. With a microscope, it can be
observed that these visible fibers are made up of still smaller ones,
the length of which varies in different parts of the animal. It is to
the length of these fibers that the tenderness of meat is due. Short
fibers are much easier to chew than long ones; consequently, the pieces
containing them are the most tender. These muscle fibers, which are in
the form of tiny tubes, are filled with a protein substance. They are
held together with a tough, stringy material called _connective tissue_.
As the animal grows older and its muscles are used more, the walls of
these tubes or fibers become dense and tough; likewise, the amount of
connective tissue increases and becomes tougher. Among the muscle fibers
are embedded layers and particles of fat, the quantity of which varies
greatly in different animals and depends largely on the age of the
animal. For instance, lamb and veal usually have very little fat in the
tissues, mutton and beef always contain more, while pork contains a
greater amount of fat than the meat of any other domestic animal.

8. The composition of meat depends to a large extent on the breed of the
animal, the degree to which it has been fattened, and the particular cut
of meat in question. However, the muscle fibers are made up of protein
and contain more protein, mineral salts, or ash, and certain substances
called _extractives_, all of which are held in solution by water. The
younger the animal, the greater is the proportion of water and the lower
the nutritive value of meat. It should be understood, however, that not
all of meat is edible material; indeed, a large part of it is made up of
gristle, bones, cartilage, nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue.
The amount of these indigestible materials also varies in different
animals and different cuts, but the average proportion in a piece of
meat is usually considered to be 15 per cent. of the whole. Because of
the variation of both the edible and inedible material of meat, a
standard composition for this food cannot readily be given. However, an
idea of the average composition of the various kinds can be obtained
from Fig. 1.

[Illustration: Fig 1.]

BEEF                Fuel value per pound
  Chuck, medium fat      735
  Loin, medium fat      1040
  Ribs, medium fat      1155
  Round, very lean       475
  Round, medium fat      895
  Round, very fat       1275
  Rump, medium fat      1110

VEAL
  Breast, medium fat      740
  Leg, medium fat         620
  Loin, medium fat        690

LAMB
  Leg, medium fat         870

MUTTON
  Leg, medium fat         900

PORK
  Ham, fresh, medium fat 1345
  Ham, smoked            1675
  Loin                   1455
  Bacon, medium fat      2795

9. PROTEIN IN MEAT.--The value of meat as food is due to the proteins
that it contains. Numerous kinds of protein occur in meat, but the
chief varieties are myosin and muscle albumin. The _myosin_, which is
the most important protein and occurs in the greatest quantity, hardens
after the animal has been killed and the muscles have become cold. The
tissues then become tough and hard, a condition known as _rigor
mortis_. As meat in this condition is not desirable, it should be used
before rigor mortis sets in, or else it should be put aside until this
condition of toughness disappears. The length of time necessary for this
to occur varies with the size of the animal that is killed. It may be
from 24 hours to 3 or 4 days. The disappearance is due to the
development of certain acids that cause the softening of the tissues.
The _albumin_, which is contained in solution in the muscle fibers, is
similar in composition to the albumen of eggs and milk, and it is
affected by the application of heat in the cooking processes in much
the same way.

10. GELATINE IN MEAT.--The gelatine that is found in meat is a substance
very similar in composition to protein, but it has less value as food.
It is contained in the connective tissue and can be extracted by
boiling, being apparent as a jellylike substance after the water in
which meat has been cooked has cooled. Use is made of this material in
the preparation of pressed meats and fowl and in various salads and
other cold-meat dishes. Some kinds of commercial gelatine are also made
from it, being first extracted from the meat and then evaporated to form
a dry substance.

11. FAT IN MEAT.--All meat, no matter how lean it appears, contains some
fat. As already explained, a part of the fat contained in meat occurs in
small particles so embedded in the muscle fibers as not to be readily
seen, while the other part occurs in sufficient amounts to be visible.
In the flesh of some animals, such as veal and rabbit, there is almost
no visible fat, but in very fat hogs or fowls, one-third or one-half of
the weight may be fat. Meats that are very fat are higher in nutritive
value than meats that contain only a small amount of this substance, as
will be observed on referring to the table of meat compositions in Fig.
1. However, an excessive amount of fat prevents the protein materials
from digesting normally.

The quality of fat varies greatly, there being two distinct kinds of
this material in animals. That which covers or lies between the muscles
or occurs on the outside of the body just beneath the skin has a lower
melting point, is less firm, and is of a poorer grade for most purposes
than that which is found inside the bony structure and surrounds the
internal organs. The suet of beef is an example of this internal fat.

Fat is a valuable constituent of food, for it is the most concentrated
form in which the fuel elements of food are found. In supplying the body
with fuel, it serves to maintain the body temperature and to yield
energy in the form of muscular and other power. Since this is such a
valuable food material, it is important that the best possible use be
made of all drippings and left-over fats and that not even the smallest
amount of any kind be wasted.

12. CARBOHYDRATE IN MEAT.--In the liver and all muscle fibers of animals
is stored a small supply of carbohydrate in a form that is called
_glycogen_, or _muscle sugar_. However, there is not enough of this
substance to be of any appreciable value, and, so far as the methods of
cookery and the uses of meat as food are concerned, it is of no
importance.

13. WATER IN MEAT.--The proportion of water in meat varies from
one-third to three-fourths of the whole, depending on the amount of fat
the meat contains and the age of the animal. This water carries with it
the flavor, much of the mineral matter, and some food material, so that
when the water is removed from the tissues these things are to a great
extent lost. The methods of cookery applied to meat are based on the
principle of either retaining or extracting the water that it contains.
The meat in which water is retained is more easily chewed and swallowed
than that which is dry. However, the water contained in flesh has no
greater value as food than other water. Therefore, as will be seen in
Fig. 1, the greater the amount of water in a given weight of food, the
less is its nutritive value.

14. MINERALS IN MEAT.--Eight or more kinds of minerals in sufficient
quantities to be of importance in the diet are to be found in meat. Lean
meat contains the most minerals; they decrease in proportion as the
amount of fat increases. These salts assist in the building of hard
tissues and have a decided effect on the blood. They are lost from the
tissues of meat by certain methods of cookery, but as they are in
solution in the water in which the meat is cooked, they need not be lost
to the diet if use is made of this water for soups, sauces, and gravies.

15. EXTRACTIVES IN MEAT.--The appetizing flavor of meat is due to
substances called _extractives_. The typical flavor that serves to
distinguish pork from beef or mutton is due to the difference in the
extractives. Although necessary for flavoring, these have no nutritive
value; in fact, the body throws them off as waste material when they are
taken with the food. In some methods of cookery, such as broiling and
roasting, the extractives are retained, while in others, such as those
employed for making stews and soups, they are drawn out.

Extractives occur in the greatest quantity in the muscles that the
animal exercises a great deal and that in reality have become tough.
Likewise, a certain part of an old animal contains more extractives than
the same part of a young one. For these reasons a very young chicken is
broiled while an old one is used for stew, and ribs of beef are roasted
while the shins are used for soup.

Meat that is allowed to hang and ripen develops compounds that are
similar to extractives and that impart additional flavor. A ripened
steak is usually preferred to one cut from an animal that has been
killed only a short time. However, as the ripening is in reality a
decomposition process, the meat is said to become "high" if it is
allowed to hang too long.


PURCHASE AND CARE OF MEAT

16. PURCHASE OF MEAT.--Of all the money that is spent for food in the
United States nearly one-third is spent for meat. This proportion is
greater than that of any European country and is probably more than is
necessary to provide diets that are properly balanced. If it is found
that the meat bill is running too high, one or more of several things
may be the cause. The one who does the purchasing may not understand the
buying of meat, the cheaper cuts may not be used because of a lack of
knowledge as to how they should be prepared to make them appetizing, or
more meat may be served than is necessary to supply the needs of
the family.

Much of this difficulty can be overcome if the person purchasing meat
goes to the market personally to see the meat cut and weighed instead of
telephoning the order. It is true, of course, that the method of cutting
an animal varies in different parts of the country, as does also the
naming of the different pieces. However, this need give the housewife no
concern, for the dealer from whom the meat is purchased is usually
willing to supply any information that is desired about the cutting of
meat and the best use for certain pieces. In fact, if the butcher is
competent, this is a very good source from which to obtain a knowledge
of such matters.

Another way in which to reduce the meat bill is to utilize the trimmings
of bone and fat from pieces of meat. In most cases, these are of no
value to the butcher, so that if a request for them is made, he will, as
a rule, be glad to wrap them up with the meat that is purchased. They
are of considerable value to the housewife, for the bones may go into
the stock pot, while the fat, if it is tried out, can be used for
many things.

17. The quantity of meat to purchase depends, of course, on the number
of persons that are to be served with it. However, it is often a good
plan to purchase a larger piece than is required for a single meal and
then use what remains for another meal. For instance, a large roast is
always better than a small one, because it does not dry out in the
process of cookery and the part that remains after one meal may be
served cold in slices or used for making some other dish, such as meat
pie or hash. Such a plan also saves both time and fuel, because
sufficient meat for several meals may be cooked at one time.

In purchasing meat, there are certain pieces that should never be asked
for by the pound or by the price. For instance, the housewife should not
say to the butcher, "Give me 2 pounds of porterhouse steak," nor should
she say, "Give me 25 cents worth of chops." Steak should be bought by
the cut, and the thickness that is desired should be designated. For
example, the housewife may ask for an inch-thick sirloin steak, a 2-inch
porterhouse steak, and so on. Chops should be bought according to the
number of persons that are to be served, usually a chop to a person
being quite sufficient. Rib roasts should be bought by designating the
number of ribs. Thus, the housewife may ask for a rib roast containing
two, three, four, or more ribs, depending on the size desired. Roasts
from other parts of beef, such as chuck or rump roasts, may be cut into
chunks of almost any desirable size without working a disadvantage to
either the butcher or the customer, and may therefore be bought by the
pound. Round bought for steaks should be purchased by the cut, as are
other steaks; or, if an entire cut is too large, it may be purchased as
upper round or lower round, but the price paid should vary with the
piece that is purchased. Round bought for roasts, however, may be
purchased by the pound.

18. CARE OF MEAT IN THE MARKET.--Animal foods decompose more readily
than any other kind, and the products of their decomposition are
extremely dangerous to the health. It is therefore a serious matter when
everything that comes in contact with meat is not clean. Regarding the
proper care of meat, the sanitary condition of the market is the first
consideration. The light and ventilation of the room and the cleanliness
of the walls, floors, tables, counters, and other equipment are points
of the greatest importance and should be noted by the housewife when she
is purchasing meat. Whether the windows and doors are screened and all
the meat is carefully covered during the fly season are also matters
that should not be overlooked. Then, too, the cleanliness and physical
condition of the persons who handle the meat should be of as great
concern as the sanitary condition of the market. The housewife who
desires to supply her family with the safest and cleanest meat should
endeavor to purchase it in markets where all the points pertaining to
the sanitary condition are as ideal as possible. If she is at all
doubtful as to the freshness and cleanliness of what is sold to her, she
should give it thorough cooking in the process of preparation so that no
harm will be done to the persons who are to eat it.

19. CARE OF MEAT IN THE HOME.--Because of the perishable nature of meat,
the care given it in the market must be continued in the home in order
that no deterioration may take place before it is cooked. This is not
much of a problem during cold weather, but through the summer months a
cool place in which to keep it must be provided unless the meat can be
cooked very soon after it is delivered. Meat that must be shipped long
distances is frozen before it is shipped and is kept frozen until just
before it is used. If such meat is still frozen when it enters the home,
it should not be put into a warm place, for then it will thaw too
quickly. Instead, it should be put in the refrigerator or in some place
where the temperature is a few degrees above freezing point, so that it
will thaw slowly and still remain too cold for bacteria to
become active.

Even if meat is not frozen, it must receive proper attention after it
enters the home. As soon as it is received, it should be removed from
the wrapping paper or the wooden or cardboard dish in which it is
delivered. If the meat has not been purchased personally, it is
advisable to weigh it in order to verify the butcher's bill. When the
housewife is satisfied about the weight, she should place the meat in
an earthenware, china, or enameled bowl, cover it, and then put it away
in the coolest available place until it is used. Some persons put salt
on meat when they desire to keep it, but this practice should be
avoided, as salt draws out the juices from raw meat and hardens the
tissues to a certain extent.

If such precautions are taken with meat, it will be in good condition
when it is to be cooked. However, before any cooking method is applied
to it, it should always be wiped with a clean, damp cloth. In addition,
all fat should be removed, except just enough to assist in cooking the
meat and give it a good flavor. Bone or tough portions may also be
removed if they can be used to better advantage for soups or stews.

       *       *       *       *       *

COOKING OF MEAT

PURPOSES OF COOKING MEAT

20. It is in the preparation of food, and of meat in particular, that
one of the marked differences between uncivilized and civilized man is
evident. Raw meat, which is preferred by the savage, does not appeal to
the appetite of most civilized persons; in fact, to the majority of them
the idea of using it for food is disgusting. Therefore, civilized man
prepares his meat before eating it, and the higher his culture, the more
perfect are his methods of preparation.

While it is probably true that most of the methods of cookery render
meat less easy to digest than in its raw condition, this disadvantage is
offset by the several purposes for which this food is cooked. Meat is
cooked chiefly to loosen and soften the connective tissue and thus cause
the muscle tissues to be exposed more fully to the action of the
digestive juices. Another important reason for cooking meat is that
subjecting it to the action of heat helps to kill bacteria and
parasites. In addition, meat is cooked to make it more attractive to the
eye and to develop and improve its flavor.


METHODS OF COOKING MEAT

21. The result desired when meat is cooked has much to do with the
method of cookery to choose, for different methods produce different
results. To understand this, it will be necessary to know just what the
action of cooking is on the material that meat contains. When raw meat
is cut, the tiny meat fibers are laid open, with the result that, in the
application of the cooking process, the albuminous material either is
lost, or, like the albumen of eggs, is coagulated, or hardened, and thus
retained. Therefore, before preparing a piece of meat, the housewife
should determine which of these two things she wishes to accomplish and
then proceed to carry out the process intelligently.

The methods of cookery that may be applied to meat include broiling, pan
broiling, roasting, stewing or simmering, braizing, frying, sautéing,
and fricasseeing. All of these methods are explained in a general way in
_Essentials of Cookery_, Part 1, but explanations of them as they apply
to meat are here given in order to acquaint the housewife with the
advantages and disadvantages of the various ways by which this food can
be prepared.

22. BROILING AND PAN BROILING.--Only such cuts of meats as require short
cooking can be prepared by the methods of broiling and pan broiling. To
carry out these methods successfully, severe heat must be applied to the
surface of the meat so that the albumin in the ends of the muscle fibers
may be coagulated at once. This presents, during the remainder of the
preparation, a loss of the meat juices.

Meat to which either of these methods is applied will be indigestible on
the surface and many times almost uncooked in the center, as in the case
of rare steak. Such meat, however, is more digestible than thin pieces
that are thoroughly cooked at the very high temperature required
for broiling.

23. ROASTING.--The process of roasting, either in the oven or in a pot
on top of the stove, to be properly done, requires that the piece of
meat to be roasted must first be seared over the entire surface by the
application of severe heat. In the case of a pot roast, the searing can
be done conveniently in the pot before the pot-roasting process begins.
If the meat is to be roasted in the oven, it may be seared first in a
pan on top of the stove. However, it may be seared to some extent by
placing it in a very hot oven and turning it over so that all the
surface is exposed. Then, to continue the roasting process, the
temperature must be lowered just a little.

The roasting pan may be of any desirable size and shape that is
convenient and sufficiently large to accommodate the meat to be
prepared. A pan like that shown in Fig. 2 is both convenient and
satisfactory. It is provided with a cover that fits tight. In this
cover, as shown, is an opening that may be closed or opened so as to
regulate the amount of moisture inside the pan. In the bottom of the pan
is a rack upon which the meat may rest.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

24. To prepare meat for roasting, flour should be sprinkled or rubbed
over its lean surface before it is put in the pan. This forms a paste
that cooks into a crust and prevents the loss of juices from the meat.
In roasting, the heat is applied longer and more slowly than in broiling
or frying, so that there is more possibility for the connective tissue
beneath the surface to soften. The surface is, however, as indigestible
as that of broiled meat.

An important point for every housewife to remember in this connection is
that the larger the roast the slower should be the fire. This is due to
the fact that long before the heat could penetrate to the center, the
outside would be burned. A small roast, however, will be more delicious
if it is prepared with a very hot fire, for then the juices will not
have a chance to evaporate and the tissues will be more moist and tasty.

25. FRYING AND SAUTÉING.--When meat is fried or sautéd, that is, brought
directly in contact with hot fat, it is made doubly indigestible,
because of the hardening of the surface tissues and the indigestibility
of the fat that penetrates these tissues. This is especially true of
meat that is sautéd slowly in a small quantity of hot fat. Much of this
difficulty can be overcome, however, if meat prepared by these methods,
like that which is broiled or roasted, is subjected quickly to intense
heat. In addition, the fat used for cooking should be made hot before
the meat is put into it.

26. BOILING.--To boil meat means to cook it a long time in water at a
temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit. This method of preparing meat is
not strongly advocated, for there is seldom a time when better results
cannot be obtained by cooking meat at a lower temperature than boiling
point. The best plan is to bring the meat to the boiling point, allow
it to boil for a short time, and then reduce the temperature so that the
meat will simmer for the remainder of the cooking.

In cooking meat by boiling, a grayish scum appears on the surface just
before the boiling point is reached. This scum is caused by the gradual
extraction of a part of the soluble albumin that is present in the
hollow fibers of the muscle tissue. After its extraction, it is
coagulated by the heat in the water. As it coagulates and rises, it
carries with it to the top particles of dirt and other foreign material
present in the water or on the surface of the meat. In addition, this
scum contains a little blood, which is extracted and coagulated and
which tends to make it grayish in color. Such scum should be skimmed
off, as it is unappetizing in appearance.

27. Whether the meat should be put into cold water or boiling water
depends on the result that is desired. It is impossible to make a rich,
tasty broth and at the same time have a juicy, well-flavored piece of
boiled meat. If meat is cooked for the purpose of making soup or broth,
it should be put into cold water and then brought to a boil. By this
method, some of the nutritive material and much of the flavoring
substance will be drawn out before the water becomes hot enough to
harden them. However, in case only the meat is to be used, it should be
plunged directly into boiling water in order to coagulate the surface at
once, as in the application of dry heat. If it is allowed to boil for 10
minutes or so and the temperature then reduced, the coating that is
formed will prevent the nutritive material and the flavor from being
lost to any great extent. But if the action of the boiling water is
permitted to continue during the entire time of cooking, the tissues
will become tough and dry.

28. STEWING OR SIMMERING.--The cheap cuts of meat, which contain a great
deal of flavor and are so likely to be tough, cannot be prepared by the
quick methods of cookery nor by the application of high temperature, for
the result would be a tough, indigestible, and unpalatable dish. The
long, slow cooking at a temperature lower than boiling point, which is
known as stewing or simmering, should be applied. In fact, no better
method for the preparation of tough pieces of meat and old fowl can be
found than this process, for by it the connective tissue and the muscle
fibers are softened. If the method is carried out in a tightly closed
vessel and only a small amount of liquid is used, there is no
appreciable loss of flavor except that carried into the liquid in which
the meat cooks. But since such liquid is always used, the meat being
usually served in it, as in the case of stews, there is no actual loss.

To secure the best results in the use of this method, the meat should be
cut into small pieces so as to expose as much surface as possible. Then
the pieces should be put into cold water rather than hot, in order that
much of the juices and flavoring materials may be dissolved. When this
has been accomplished, the temperature should be gradually raised until
it nearly reaches the boiling point. If it is kept at this point for
several hours, the meat will become tender and juicy and a rich, tasty
broth will also be obtained.

29. BRAIZING.--Meat cooked by the method of braizing, which is in
reality a combination of stewing and baking, is first subjected to the
intense dry heat of the oven and then cooked slowly in the steam of the
water that surrounds it. To cook meat in this way, a pan must be used
that will permit the meat to be raised on a rack that extends above a
small quantity of water. By this method a certain amount of juice from
the meat is taken up by the water, but the connective tissue is well
softened unless the cooking is done at too high a temperature.

30. FRICASSEEING.--As has already been learned, fricasseeing is a
combination of sautéing and stewing. The sautéing coagulates the surface
proteins and prevents, to some extent, the loss of flavor that would
occur in the subsequent stewing if the surface were not hardened. To
produce a tender, tasty dish, fricasseeing should be a long, slow
process. This method is seldom applied to tender, expensive cuts of meat
and to young chickens, but is used for fowl and for pieces of meat that
would not make appetizing dishes if prepared by a quicker method.


TIME REQUIRED FOR COOKING MEAT

31. The length of time required for cooking various kinds of meat is
usually puzzling to those inexperienced in cookery. The difference
between a dry, hard beef roast and a tender, moist, juicy one is due to
the length of time allowed for cooking. Overdone meats of any kind are
not likely to be tasty. Therefore, it should be remembered that when dry
heat is used, as in baking, roasting, broiling, etc., the longer the
heat is applied the greater will be the evaporation of moisture and the
consequent shrinkage in the meat.

A general rule for cooking meat in the oven is to allow 15 minutes for
each pound and 15 minutes extra. If it is to be cooked by broiling,
allow 10 minutes for each pound and 10 minutes extra; by boiling, 20
minutes for each pound and 20 minutes extra; and by simmering, 30
minutes for each pound. In Table I is given the number of minutes
generally allowed for cooking 1 pound of each of the various cuts of
beef, veal, mutton, lamb, and pork by the different cookery methods.
This table should be referred to in studying the two Sections
pertaining to meat.

TABLE I

TIME TABLE FOR COOKING MEATS

NAME OF CUT     COOKERY METHOD        TIME PER POUND
                                         MINUTES
                    BEEF
Round            Roasting               12 to 15
Ribs             Roasting, well done    12 to 15
Ribs             Roasting, rare          8 to 10
Rump             Roasting               12 to 15
Sirloin          Roasting, rare          8 to 10
Rolled roast     Roasting               12 to 15
Steaks           Broiling, well done    12 to 15
Steaks           Broiling, rare          8 to 10
Fresh beef       Boiling                20 to 25
Corned beef      Boiling                25 to 30
Any cut          Simmering                    30
Chuck            Braizing               25 to 30

                    VEAL
Leg              Roasting                     20
Chops or steak   Broiling                8 to 30
Shoulder         Braizing               30 to 40

                   MUTTON
Leg              Roasting               15 to 20
Shoulder         Roasting               15 to 20
Leg              Braizing               40 to 50
Leg              Boiling                15 to 25
Chops            Broiling               10 to 12

                    LAMB
Loin or saddle   Roasting               15 to 20
Leg              Roasting               15 to 20
Chops            Broiling                8 to 10

                    PORK
Shoulder or ribs Roasting                20 to 25
Ham              Boiled                  20 to 30
Chops            Broiled                  8 to 10

       *       *       *       *       *


BEEF

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF

32. As is generally known, BEEF is the flesh of a slaughtered steer,
cow, or other adult bovine animal. These animals may be sold to be
slaughtered as young as 1-1/2 to 2 years old, but beef of the best
quality is obtained from them when they are from 3 to 4 years of age.
Ranging from the highest quality down to the lowest, beef is designated
by the butcher as prime, extra fancy, fancy, extra choice, choice, good,
and poor. In a market where trade is large and varied, it is possible to
make such use of meat as to get a higher price for the better qualities
than can be obtained in other markets.

33. When the quality of beef is to be determined, the amount, quality,
and color of the flesh, bone, and fat must be considered. The surface of
a freshly cut piece of beef should be bright red in color. When it is
exposed to the air for some time, the action of the air on the blood
causes it to become darker, but even this color should be a good clear
red. Any unusual color is looked on with suspicion by a person who
understands the requirements of good meat. To obtain beef of the best
quality, it should be cut crosswise of the fiber. In fact, the way in
which meat is cut determines to a great extent the difference between
tender and tough meat and, consequently, the price that is charged. This
difference can be readily seen by examining the surface of a cut. It
will be noted that the tender parts are made up of short fibers that are
cut directly across at right angles with the surface of the meat, while
the tougher parts contain long fibers that run either slanting or almost
parallel to the surface.

34. The amount of bone and cartilage in proportion to meat in a cut of
beef usually makes a difference in price and determines the usefulness
of the piece to the housewife. Therefore, these are matters that should
be carefully considered. For instance, a certain cut of beef that is
suitable for a roast may cost a few cents less than another cut, but if
its proportion of bone to meat is greater than in the more expensive
piece, nothing is gained by purchasing it. Bones, however, possess some
value and can be utilized in various ways. Those containing _marrow_,
which is the soft tissue found in the cavities of bones and composed
largely of fat, are more valuable for soup making and for stews and
gravies than are solid bones.

In young beef in good condition, the fat is creamy white in color.
However, as the animal grows older, the color grows darker until it
becomes a deep yellow.

Besides the flesh, bone, and fat, the general shape and thickness of a
piece of beef should be noted when its quality is to be determined. In
addition, its adaptability to the purpose for which it is selected and
the method of cookery to be used in its preparation are also points that
should not be overlooked.

       *       *       *       *       *

CUTS OF BEEF

METHOD OF OBTAINING CUTS

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

35. With the general characteristics of beef well in mind, the housewife
is prepared to learn of the way in which the animal is cut to produce
the different pieces that she sees in the butcher shop and the names
that are given to the various cuts. The cutting of the animal, as well
as the naming of the pieces, varies in different localities, but the
difference is not sufficient to be confusing. Therefore, if the
information here given is thoroughly mastered, the housewife will be
able to select meat intelligently in whatever section of the country she
may reside. An important point for her to remember concerning meat of
any kind is that the cheaper cuts are found near the neck, legs, and
shins, and that the pieces increase in price as they go toward the back.

[Illustration: Fig. 4 *divisions of a cow into cuts*]

36. The general method of cutting up a whole beef into large cuts is
shown in Fig. 3. After the head, feet, and intestines are removed, the
carcass is cut down along the spine and divided into halves. Each half
includes an entire side and is known as a _side of beef_. Then each side
is divided into _fore_ and _hind quarters_ along the diagonal line that
occurs about midway between the front and the back. It is in this form
that the butcher usually receives the beef. He first separates it into
the large pieces here indicated and then cuts these pieces into numerous
smaller ones having names that indicate their location. For instance,
the piece marked _a_ includes the _chuck_; _b_, the _ribs_; _c_, the
_loin_; _d_, the _round_; _e_, the _flank_; _f_, the _plate_; and _g_,
the _shin_.

37. The cuts that are obtained from these larger pieces are shown in
Fig. 4. For instance, from the chuck, as illustrated in (_a_), are
secured numerous cuts, including the neck, shoulder clod, shoulder, and
chuck ribs. The same is true of the other pieces, as a careful study of
these illustrations will reveal. Besides indicating the various cuts,
each one of these illustrations serves an additional purpose. From
(_a_), which shows the skeleton of the beef, the amount and the shape of
the bone that the various cuts contain can be readily observed. From
(_b_), which shows the directions in which the surface muscle fibers
run, can be told whether the cutting of the pieces is done across the
fibers or in the same direction as the fibers. Both of these matters are
of such importance to the housewife that constant reference to these
illustrations should be made until the points that they serve to
indicate are thoroughly understood.


NAMES AND USES OF CUTS

38. So that a still better idea may be formed of the pieces into which a
side of beef may be cut, reference should be made to Fig. 5. The heavy
line through the center shows where the side is divided in order to cut
it into the fore and hind quarters. As will be observed, the fore
quarter includes the chuck, prime ribs, and whole plate, and the hind
quarter, the loin and the round, each of these large pieces being
indicated by a different color.

To make these large pieces of a size suitable for sale to the consumer,
the butcher cuts each one of them into still smaller pieces, all of
which are indicated in the illustration. The names of these cuts,
together with their respective uses, and the names of the beef organs
and their uses, are given in Table II.

TABLE II

CUTS OBTAINED FROM A SIDE OF BEEF AND THEIR USES

NAME OF      NAME OF CUT          USES OF CUTS
LARGE PIECE

Chuck........Neck                 Soups, broths, stews
             Shoulder clod        Soups, broths, stews,
                                     boiling, corning
             Ribs (11th, 12th,    Brown stews, braizing,
                and 13th)            poor roasts
             Ribs (9th and 10th)  Braizing, roasts
             Shoulder             Soups, stews, corning, roast
             Cross-ribs           Roast
             Brisket              Soups, stews, corning
             Shin                 Soups

Prime Ribs...Ribs (1st to 8th,    Roasts
                  inclusive)

Whole Plate..Plate                Soups, stews, corning
             Navel                Soups, stews, corning

Loin.........Short steak          Steaks, roasts
             Porterhouse cuts     Steaks, roasts
             Hip-bone steak       Steaks, roasts
             Flat-bone steak      Steaks, roasts
             Round-bone steak     Steaks, roasts
             Sirloin              Steaks
             Top sirloin          Roasts
             Flank                Rolled steak, braizing, boiling
             Tenderloin           Roast

Round........Rump                 Roasts, corning
             Upper round          Steaks, roasts
             Lower round          Steaks, pot roasts, stews
             Vein                 Stews, soups
             Shank                Soups

Beef Organs..Liver                Broiling, frying
             Heart                Baking, braizing
             Tongue               Boiling, baking, braizing
             Tail                 Soup

39. As will be observed from Fig. 5, the ribs are numbered in the
opposite direction from the way in which they are ordinarily counted;
that is, the first rib in a cut of beef is the one farthest from the
head and the thirteenth is the one just back of the neck. The first and
second ribs are called the _back ribs_; the third, fourth, fifth, and
sixth, the _middle ribs_. To prepare the ribs for sale, they are usually
cut into pieces that contain two ribs, the first and second ribs being
known as the first cut, the third and fourth as _the second_ cut, etc.
After being sawed across, the rib bones are either left in to make a
_standing rib roast_ or taken out and the meat then rolled and fastened
together with skewers to make a _rolled roast_. _Skewers,_ which are
long wooden or metal pins that may be pushed through meat to fasten it
together, will be found useful to the housewife in preparing many cuts
of meat for cooking. They may usually be obtained at a meat market or a
hardware store.

40. Certain of the organs of beef are utilized to a considerable extent,
so that while they cannot be shown in Fig. 5, they are included in Table
II. The heart and the tongue are valuable both because they are
economical and because they add variety to the meat diet of the family.
The tongue, either smoked or fresh, may be boiled and then served hot,
or it may be pickled in vinegar and served cold. The heart may be
prepared in the same way, or it may be stuffed and then baked. The tail
of beef makes excellent soup and is much used for this purpose.

       *       *       *       *       *

COOKING OF BEEF

STEAKS AND THEIR PREPARATION

41. Steaks Obtained From the Loin.--The way in which a loin of beef is
cut into steaks is shown in Fig. 6. From _a_ to _b_ are cut _Delmonico
steaks;_ from _b_ to _c_, _porterhouse steaks;_ from _c_ to _d_,
_hip-bone steaks;_ from _d_ to _e_, _flat-bone steaks;_ and from _e_ to
_f_, _sirloin steaks_. The _loin_ is cut from the rump at _f_ and from
the flank and plate at _h_ to _j_. When steaks are cut from the flesh of
animals in good condition, they are all very tender and may be used for
the quick methods of cookery, such as broiling. A very good idea of what
each of these steaks looks like can be obtained from Figs. 7 to 11,
inclusive. Each of these illustrations shows the entire section of
steak, as well as one steak cut from the piece.

DELMONICO STEAK, which is shown in Fig. 7, is the smallest steak that
can be cut from the loin and is therefore an excellent cut for a small
family. It contains little or no tenderloin. Sometimes this steak is
wrongly called a club steak, but no confusion will result if it is
remembered that a _club steak_ is a porterhouse steak that has most of
the bone and the flank end, or "tail," removed.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

Porterhouse steak, which is illustrated in Fig 8, contains more
tenderloin than any other steak. This steak also being small in size is
a very good cut for a small number of persons.

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

_Hip-bone steak_, shown in Fig. 9, contains a good-sized piece of
tenderloin. Steak of this kind finds much favor, as it can be served
quite advantageously.

Flat-bone steak, as shown in Fig. 10, has a large bone, but it also
contains a considerable amount of fairly solid meat. When a large
number of persons are to be served, this is a very good steak to select.

Sirloin steak is shown in Fig. 11. As will be observed, this steak
contains more solid meat than any of the other steaks cut from the loin.
For this reason, it serves a large number of persons more advantageously
than the others do.

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

42. Steaks Obtained From the Round.--While the steaks cut from the loin
are usually preferred because of their tenderness, those cut from the
upper round and across the rump are very desirable for many purposes. If
these are not so tender as is desired, the surface may be chopped with
a dull knife in order to make tiny cuts through the fibers, or it may be
pounded with some blunt object, as, for instance, a wooden potato
masher. In Fig. 12, the entire round and the way it is sometimes
subdivided into the upper and lower round are shown. What is known as a
round steak is a slice that is cut across the entire round. However,
such a steak is often cut into two parts where the line dividing the
round is shown, and either the upper or the lower piece may be
purchased. The upper round is the better piece and brings a higher price
than the whole round or the lower round including the vein. The quick
methods of cookery may be applied to the more desirable cuts of the
round, but the lower round or the vein is generally used for roasting,
braizing, or stewing.

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

43. Broiled Beefsteak.--As has already been explained, the steaks cut
from the loin are the ones that are generally used for broiling. When
one of these steaks is to be broiled, it should never be less than 1
inch thick, but it may be from 1 to 2-1/2 inches in thickness, according
to the preference of the persons for whom it is prepared. As the flank
end, or "tail," of such steaks is always tough, it should be cut off
before cooking and utilized in the making of soups and such dishes as
require chopped meats. In addition, all superfluous fat should be
removed and then tried out. Beef fat, especially if it is mixed with
lard or other fats, makes excellent shortening; likewise, it may be used
for sautéing various foods.

When a steak has been prepared in this manner, wipe it carefully with a
clean, damp cloth. Heat the broiler very hot and grease the rack with a
little of the beef fat. Then place the steak on the rack, expose it
directly to the rays of a very hot fire, and turn it every 10 seconds
until each side has been exposed several times to the blaze. This is
done in order to sear the entire surface and thus prevent the loss of
the juice. When the surface is sufficiently seared, lower the fire or
move the steak to a cooler place on the stove and then, turning it
frequently, allow it to cook more slowly until it reaches the desired
condition. The broiling of a steak requires from 10 to 20 minutes,
depending on its thickness and whether it is preferred well done or
rare. Place the broiled steak on a hot platter, dot it with butter,
season it with salt and pepper, and serve at once.

44. Pan-Broiled Steak.--If it is impossible to prepare the steak in a
broiler, it may be pan-broiled. In fact, this is a very satisfactory way
to cook any of the tender cuts. To carry out this method, place a heavy
frying pan directly over the fire and allow it to become so hot that the
fat will smoke when put into it. Grease the pan with a small piece of
the beef fat, just enough to prevent the steak from sticking fast. Put
the steak into the hot pan and turn it as soon as it is seared on the
side that touches the pan. After it is seared on the other side, turn it
again and continue to turn it frequently until it has broiled for about
15 minutes. When it is cooked sufficiently to serve, dot it with butter
and season it with salt and pepper. Serve hot.

45. ROLLED STEAK, OR MOCK DUCK.--To have a delicious meat, it is not
always necessary to secure the tender, expensive cuts, for excellent
dishes can be prepared from the cheaper pieces. For instance, steaks cut
from the entire round or thin cuts from the rump can be filled with a
stuffing and then rolled to make rolled steak, or mock duck. This is an
extremely appetizing dish and affords the housewife a chance to give her
family a pleasing variety in the way of meat. The steak used for this
purpose should first be broiled in the way explained in Art. 43. Then it
should be filled with a stuffing made as follows:

STUFFING FOR ROLLED STEAK

1 qt. stale bread crumbs
1 c. stewed tomatoes
1 small onion
1 Tb. salt
2 Tb. butter
1/4 Tb. pepper
1 c. hot water

[Illustration: FIG. 13] Mix all together. Pile on top of the broiled
steak and roll the steak so that the edges lap over each other and the
dressing is completely covered. Fasten together with skewers or tie by
wrapping a cord around the roll. Strips of bacon or salt pork tied to
the outside or fastened with small skewers improve the flavor of the
meat. Place in a roasting pan and bake in a hot oven until the steak is
thoroughly baked. This will require not less than 40 minutes. Cut into
slices and serve hot.

46. SKIRT STEAK.--Lying inside the ribs and extending from the second
or third rib to the breast bone is a thin strip of muscle known as a
skirt steak. This is removed before the ribs are cut for roasts, and, as
shown in Fig. 13, is slit through the center with a long, sharp knife to
form a pocket into which stuffing can be put. As a skirt steak is not
expensive and has excellent flavor, it is a very desirable piece
of meat.

To prepare such a steak for the table, stuff it with the stuffing given
for rolled steak in Art. 45, and then fasten the edges together with
skewers. Bake in a hot oven until the steak is well done. Serve hot.

47. SWISS STEAK.--Another very appetizing dish that can be made from the
cheaper steaks is Swiss steak. To be most satisfactory, the steak used
for this purpose should be about an inch thick.

Pound as much dry flour as possible into both sides of the steak by
means of a wooden potato masher. Then brown it on both sides in a hot
frying pan with some of the beef fat. When it is thoroughly browned,
pour a cup of hot water over it, cover the pan tight, and remove to the
back of the stove. Have just enough water on the steak and apply just
enough heat to keep it simmering very slowly for about 1/2 hour. As the
meat cooks, the water will form a gravy by becoming thickened with the
flour that has been pounded into the steak. Serve the steak with
this gravy.

48. HAMBURGER STEAK.--The tougher pieces of beef, such as the flank ends
of the steak and parts of the rump, the round, and the chuck, may be
ground fine by being forced through a food chopper. Such meat is very
frequently combined with egg and then formed into small cakes or patties
to make Hamburger steak. Besides providing a way to utilize pieces of
meat that might otherwise be wasted, this dish affords variety to
the diet.

HAMBURGER STEAK
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 lb. chopped beef
1 small onion, chopped
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1 egg (if desired)
1/4 tsp. pepper

Mix the ingredients thoroughly and shape into thin patties. Cook by
broiling in a pan placed in the broiler or by pan-broiling in a hot,
well-greased frying pan. Spread with butter when ready to serve.

49. PLANKED STEAK.--A dish that the housewife generally considers too
complicated for her, but that may very readily be prepared in the home,
is planked steak. Such a steak gets its name from the fact that a part
of its cooking is done on a hardwood plank, and that the steak, together
with vegetables of various kinds, is served on the plank. Potatoes are
always used as one of the vegetables that are combined with planked
steak, but besides them almost any combination or variety of vegetables
may be used as a garnish. Asparagus tips, string beans, peas, tiny
onions, small carrots, mushrooms, cauliflower, stuffed peppers, and
stuffed tomatoes are the vegetables from which a selection is usually
made. When a tender steak is selected for this purpose and is properly
cooked, and when the vegetables are well prepared and artistically
arranged, no dish can be found that appeals more to the eye and
the taste.

To prepare this dish, broil or pan-broil one of the better cuts of steak
for about 8 minutes. Butter the plank, place the steak on the center of
it and season with salt and pepper. Mash potatoes and to each 2 cupfuls
use 4 tablespoonfuls of milk, 1 tablespoonful of butter, and one egg.
After these materials have been mixed well into the potatoes, arrange a
border of potatoes around the edge of the plank. Then garnish the steak
with whatever vegetables have been selected. Care should be taken to see
that these are properly cooked and well seasoned. If onions, mushrooms,
or carrots are used, it is well to sauté them in butter after they are
thoroughly cooked. With the steak thus prepared, place the plank under
the broiler or in a hot oven and allow it to remain there long enough to
brown the potatoes, cook the steak a little more, and thoroughly heat
all the vegetables.

50. VEGETABLES SERVED WITH STEAK.--If an attractive, as well as a tasty,
dish is desired and the housewife has not sufficient time nor the
facilities to prepare a planked steak, a good plan is to sauté a
vegetable of some kind and serve it over the steak. For this purpose
numerous vegetables are suitable, but onions, small mushrooms, and
sliced tomatoes are especially desirable. When onions are used, they
should be sliced thin and then sautéd in butter until they are soft and
brown. Small mushrooms may be prepared in the same way, or they may be
sautéd in the fat that remains in the pan after the steak has been
removed. Tomatoes that are served over steak should be sliced, rolled in
crumbs, and then sautéd.

ROASTS AND THEIR PREPARATION

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

51. FILLET OF BEEF.--A large variety of roasts can be obtained from a
side of beef, but by far the most delicious one is the tenderloin, or
fillet of beef. This is a long strip of meat lying directly under the
chine, or back bone. It is either taken out as a whole, or it is left in
the loin to be cut as a part of the steaks that are obtained from this
section. When it is removed in a whole piece, as shown in Fig. 14, the
steaks that remain in the loin are not so desirable and do not bring
such a good price, because the most tender part of each of them
is removed.

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

Two different methods of cookery are usually applied to the tenderloin
of beef. Very often, as Fig. 14 shows, it is cut into slices about 2
inches thick and then broiled, when it is called _broiled fillet_, or
_fillet_ mignon. If it is not treated in this way, the whole tenderloin
is roasted after being rolled, or larded, with salt pork to supply the
fat that it lacks. Whichever way it is cooked, the tenderloin always
proves to be an exceptionally tender and delicious cut of beef. However,
it is the most expensive piece that can be bought, and so is not
recommended when economy must be practiced.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

52. CHUCK ROASTS.--While the pieces cut from the chuck are not so
desirable as those obtained from the loin or as the prime ribs, still
the chuck yields very good roasts, as Figs. 15 and 16 show. The roast
shown in Fig. 15 is the piece just back of the shoulder, and that
illustrated in Fig. 16 is cut from the ribs in the chuck. These pieces
are of a fairly good quality and if a roast as large as 8 or 10 pounds
is desired, they make an economical one to purchase.

53. RIB ROASTS.--Directly back of the chuck, as has already been
learned, are the prime ribs. From this part of the beef, which is shown
in Figs. 17 and 18, the best rib roasts are secured. Fig. 17 shows the
ribs cut off at about the eighth rib and Fig. 18 shows the same set
turned around so that the cut surface is at about the first rib, where
the best cuts occur. To prepare this piece for roasting, it is often cut
around the dark line shown in Fig. 18, and after the back bone and ribs
have been removed, is rolled into a roll of solid meat. The thin lower
part that is cut off is used for boiling.

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

[Illustration: FIG. 20]

54. When only a small roast is wanted, a single rib, such as is shown in
Fig. 19, is often used. In a roast of this kind, the bone is not
removed, but, as will be observed, is sawed in half. Such a roast is
called a _standing rib roast_. Another small roast, called a
_porterhouse roast_, is illustrated in Fig. 20. This is obtained by
cutting a porterhouse steak rather thick. It is therefore a very tender
and delicious, although somewhat expensive, roast. Other parts of the
loin may also be cut for roasts, the portion from which sirloin steaks
are cut making large and very delicious roasts.

[Illustration: FIG. 21]

55. RUMP ROASTS.--Between the loin and the bottom round lies the rump,
and from this may be cut roasts of different kinds. The entire rump with
its cut surface next to the round is shown in Fig. 21, and the various
pieces into which the rump may be cut are illustrated in Figs. 22 to 25.
These roasts have a very good flavor and are very juicy, and if beef in
prime condition can be obtained, they are extremely tender. Besides
these advantages, rump roasts are economical, so they are much favored.
To prepare them for cooking, the butcher generally removes the bone and
rolls them in the manner shown in Fig. 26.

56. ROAST BEEF.--The usual method of preparing the roasts that have just
been described, particularly the tender ones, is to cook them in the
oven. For this purpose a roasting pan, such as the one previously
described and illustrated, produces the best results, but if one of
these cannot be obtained, a dripping pan may be substituted. When the
meat is first placed in the oven, the oven temperature should be 400 to
450 degrees Fahrenheit, but after the meat has cooked for about 15
minutes, the temperature should be lowered so that the meat will cook
more slowly.

[Illustration: FIG. 22]

[Illustration: FIG. 23]

[Illustration: FIG. 24]

[Illustration: FIG. 25]

Before putting the roast in the oven, wipe it thoroughly with a damp
cloth. If its surface is not well covered with a layer of fat, place
several pieces of salt pork on it and tie or skewer them fast. Then,
having one of the cut sides up so that it will be exposed to the heat of
the oven, set the piece of meat in a roasting pan or the utensil that is
to be substituted. Dredge, or sprinkle, the surface with flour, salt,
and pepper, and place the pan in the oven, first making sure that the
oven is sufficiently hot. Every 10 or 15 minutes baste the meat with the
fat and the juice that cooks out of it; that is, spoon up this liquid
and pour it over the meat in order to improve the flavor and to prevent
the roast from becoming dry. If necessary, a little water may be added
for basting, but the use of water for this purpose should generally be
avoided. Allow the meat to roast until it is either well done or rare,
according to the way it is preferred. The length of time required for
this process depends so much on the size of the roast, the temperature
of the oven, and the preference of the persons who are to eat the meat,
that definite directions cannot well be given. However, a general idea
of this matter can be obtained by referring to the Cookery Time Table
given in _Essentials of Cookery_, Part 2, and also to Table I of this
Section, which gives the time required for cooking each pound of meat.
If desired, gravy may be made from the juice that remains in the pan,
the directions for making gravy being given later.

[Illustration: FIG. 26]

57. BRAIZED BEEF.--An excellent way in which to cook a piece of beef
that is cut from the rump or lower round is to braize it. This method
consists in placing the meat on a rack over a small quantity of water in
a closed pan and then baking it in the oven for about 4 hours.
Vegetables cut into small pieces are placed in the water and they cook
while the meat is baking. As meat prepared in this way really cooks in
the flavored steam that rises from the vegetables, it becomes very
tender and has a splendid flavor; also, the gravy that may be made from
the liquid that remains adds to its value. In serving it, a spoonful of
the vegetables is generally put on the plate with each piece of meat.

BRAIZED BEEF
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 lb. beef from rump or lower round
Flour
Salt
Pepper
2 thin slices salt pork
1/4 c. diced carrots
1/4 c. diced turnips
1/4 c. diced onions
1/4 c. diced celery
3 c. boiling water

Wipe the meat with a damp cloth, and dredge, or sprinkle, it with the
flour, salt, and pepper. Try out the pork and brown the entire surface
of the meat in the fat thus obtained. Then place the meat on a rack in a
deep granite pan, an earthen bowl, or a baking dish, and surround it
with the diced vegetables. Add the boiling water, cover the dish tight,
and place in a slow oven. Bake for about 4 hours at a low temperature.
Then remove the meat to a hot platter, strain out the vegetables, and
make a thickened gravy of the liquid that remains, as explained later.

58. POT-ROASTED BEEF.--The usual, and probably the most satisfactory,
method of preparing the cheaper cuts of beef is to cook them in a heavy
iron pot over a slow fire for several hours. If the proper attention is
given to the preparation of such a roast, usually called a pot roast, it
will prove a very appetizing dish. Potatoes may also be cooked in the
pot with the meat. This is a good plan to follow for it saves fuel and
at the same time offers variety in the cooking of potatoes.

When a piece of beef is to be roasted in a pot, try out in the pot a
little of the beef fat. Then wipe the meat carefully and brown it on all
sides in the fat. Add salt, pepper, and 1/2 cupful of boiling water and
cover the pot tightly. Cook over a slow fire until the water is
evaporated and the meat begins to brown; then add another 1/2 cupful of
water. Continue to do this until the meat has cooked for several hours,
or until the entire surface is well browned and the meat tissue very
tender. Then place the meat on a hot platter and, if desired, make gravy
of the fat that remains in the pan, following the directions given
later. If potatoes are to be cooked with the roast, put them into the
pot around the meat about 45 minutes before the meat is to be removed,
as they will be cooked sufficiently when the roast is done.

59. BEEF LOAF.--Hamburger steak is not always made into small patties
and broiled or sautéd. In fact, it is very often combined with cracker
crumbs, milk, and egg, and then well seasoned to make a beef loaf. Since
there are no bones nor fat to be cut away in serving, this is an
economical dish and should be used occasionally to give variety to the
diet. If desired, a small quantity of salt pork may be combined with the
beef to add flavor.

BEEF LOAF
(Sufficient to Serve Ten)

3 lb. beef
2 Tb. salt
1/4 lb. salt pork
1/4 Tb. pepper
1 c. cracker crumbs
1 small onion
1 c. milk
2 Tb. chopped parsley
1 egg

Put the beef and pork through the food chopper; then mix thoroughly with
the other ingredients. Pack tightly into a loaf-cake pan. Bake in a
moderate oven for 2 1/2 to 3 hours. During the baking, baste frequently
with hot water to which a little butter has been added. Serve either hot
or cold, as desired.


PREPARATION OP STEWS AND CORNED BEEF

60. Cuts Suitable for Stewing and Corning.--Because of the large variety
of cuts obtained from a beef, numerous ways of cooking this meat have
been devised. The tender cuts are, of course, the most desirable and the
most expensive and they do not require the same preparation as the
cheaper cuts. However, the poorer cuts, while not suitable for some
purposes, make very good stews and corned beef. The cuts that are most
satisfactory for stewing and coming are shown in Figs. 27 to 30. A part
of the chuck that is much used for stewing and coming is shown in Fig.
27, _a_ being the upper chuck, _b_ the shoulder, and _c_ the lower
chuck. Fig. 28 shows a piece of the shoulder cut off just at the leg
joint, Fig. 29, the neck, and Fig. 30, a piece of the plate called a
flat-rib piece. Besides these pieces, the brisket, the lower part of the
round, and any of the other chuck pieces that do not make good roasts
are excellent for this purpose. In fact, any part that contains bone and
fat, as well as lean, makes well-flavored stew.

[Illustration: FIG. 27]

[Illustration: FIG. 28]

[Illustration: FIG. 29]

[Illustration: FIG. 30]

61. Beef Stew.--Any of the pieces of beef just mentioned may be used
with vegetables of various kinds to make beef stew. Also left-over
pieces of a roast or a steak may be utilized with other meats in the
making of this dish. If the recipe here given is carefully followed, a
very appetizing as well as nutritious stew will be the result.

BEEF STEW
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

4 lb. beef
2/3 c. diced carrots
2 Tb. salt
1 small onion, sliced
1/4 Tb. pepper
3 c. potatoes cut into 1/4 in. slices
2/3 c. diced turnips
2 Tb. flour

Wipe the meat and cut it into pieces about 2 inches long. Try out some
of the fat in a frying pan and brown the pieces of meat in it, stirring
the meat constantly so that it will brown evenly. Put the browned meat
into a kettle with the remaining fat and the bone, cover well with
boiling water, and add the salt and pepper. Cover the kettle with a
tight-fitting lid. Let the meat boil for a minute or two, then reduce
the heat, and allow it to simmer for about 2 hours. For the last hour,
cook the diced turnips, carrots, and onions with the meat, and 20
minutes before serving, add the potatoes. When the meat and vegetables
are sufficiently cooked, remove the bones, fat, and skin; then thicken
the stew with the flour moistened with enough cold water to pour. Pour
into a deep platter or dish and serve with or without dumplings.

62. When dumplings are to be served with beef stew or any dish of this
kind, they may be prepared as follows:

DUMPLINGS

2 c. flour
2 Tb. fat
1/2 Tb. salt
3/4 to 1 c. milk
4 tsp. baking powder

Mix and sift the flour, salt, and baking powder. Chop in the fat with a
knife. Add the milk gradually and mix to form a dough. Toss on a floured
board and roll out or pat until it is about 1 inch thick. Cut into
pieces with a small biscuit cutter. Place these close together in a
buttered steamer and steam over a kettle of hot water for 15 to 18
minutes. Serve with the stew.

If a softer dough that can be cooked with the stew is preferred, 1 1/2
cupfuls of milk instead of 3/4 to 1 cupful should be used. Drop the
dough thus prepared by the spoonful into the stew and boil for about 15
minutes. Keep the kettle tightly covered while the dumplings
are boiling.

63. CORNED BEEF.--It is generally the custom to purchase corned beef,
that is, beef preserved in a brine, at the market; but this is not
necessary, as meat of this kind may be prepared in the home. When the
housewife wishes to corn beef, she will find it an advantage to procure
a large portion of a quarter of beef, part of which may be corned and
kept to be used after the fresh beef has been eaten. Of course, this
plan should be followed only in cold weather, for fresh meat soon spoils
unless it is kept very cold.

To corn beef, prepare a mixture of 10 parts salt to 1 part saltpeter and
rub this into the beef until the salt remains dry on the surface. Put
the meat aside for 24 hours and then rub it again with some of the same
mixture. On the following day, put the beef into a large crock or stone
jar and cover it with a brine made by boiling 2-1/2 gallons of water
into which have been added 2 quarts salt, 2 ounces saltpeter, and 3/4
pound brown sugar. Be careful to cool the brine until it entirely cold
before using it. Allow the beef to remain in the brine for a week before
attempting to use it. Inspect it occasionally, and if it does not appear
to be keeping well, remove it from the brine, rub it again with the salt
mixture, and place it in fresh brine. Beef that is properly corned will
keep an indefinite length of time, but it should be examined, every 2 or
3 days for the first few weeks to see that it is not spoiling.

64. BOILED CORNED BEEF.--The usual way to prepare beef corned in the
manner just explained or corned beef bought at the market is to boil it.
After it becomes sufficiently tender by this method of cooking, it may
be pressed into a desired shape and when cold cut into thin slices. Meat
of this kind makes an excellent dish for a light meal such as luncheon
or supper.

To boil corned beef, first wipe it thoroughly and roll and tie it. Then
put it into a kettle, cover it with boiling water, and set it over the
fire. When it comes to the boiling point, skim off the scum that forms
on the top. Cook at a low temperature until the meat is tender enough to
be pierced easily with a fork. Then place the meat in a dish or a pan,
pour the broth over it, put a plate on top that will rest on the meat,
and weight it down with something heavy enough to press the meat into
shape. Allow it to remain thus overnight. When cold and thoroughly set,
remove from the pan, cut into thin slices, and serve.

65. BOILED DINNER.--Corned beef is especially adaptable to what is
commonly termed a boiled dinner. Occasionally it is advisable for the
housewife to vary her meals by serving a dinner of this kind. In
addition to offering variety, such a dinner affords her an opportunity
to economize on fuel, especially if gas or electricity is used, for all
of it may be prepared in the same pot and cooked over the same burner.

BOILED DINNER
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 lb. corned beef
1 c. sliced turnips
1 small head of cabbage cut into eighths
1 c. sliced potatoes
Pepper and salt
1 c. sliced carrots

Cook the corned beef in the manner explained in Art. 64. When it has
cooked sufficiently, remove it from the water. Into this water, put the
cabbage, carrots, turnips, and potatoes; then add the salt and pepper,
seasoning to taste. Cook until the vegetables are tender. Remove the
vegetables and serve them in vegetable dishes with some of the meat
broth. Reheat the meat before serving.


BEEF ORGANS AND THEIR PREPARATION

66. BOILED TONGUE.--The tongue of beef is much used, for if properly
prepared it makes a delicious meat that may be served hot or cold. It is
usually corned or smoked to preserve it until it can be used. In either
of these forms or in its fresh state, it must be boiled in order to
remove the skin and prepare the meat for further use. If it has been
corned or smoked, it is likely to be very salty, so that it should
usually be soaked overnight to remove the salt.

When boiled tongue is desired, put a fresh tongue or a smoked or a
corned tongue from which the salt has been removed into a kettle of cold
water and allow it to come to a boil. Skim and continue to cook at a low
temperature for 2 hours. Cool enough to handle and then remove the skin
and the roots. Cut into slices and serve hot or cold.

67. PICKLED TONGUE.--A beef tongue prepared in the manner just explained
may be treated in various ways, but a method of preparation that meets
with much favor consists in pickling it. Pickled tongue makes an
excellent meat when a cold dish is required for a light meal or meat for
sandwiches is desired. The pickle required for one tongue contains the
following ingredients:

PICKLE

1-1/2 c. vinegar
2 c. water
1/4 c. sugar
1 Tb. salt
1/4 Tb. pepper
6 cloves
1 stick cinnamon

Boil all of these ingredients for a few minutes, then add the tongue,
and boil for 15 minutes. Remove from the stove and let stand for 24
hours. Slice and serve cold.

68. BRAIZED TONGUE.--The process of braizing may be applied to tongue as
well as to other parts of beef. In fact, when tongue is cooked in this
way with several kinds of vegetables, it makes a delicious dish that is
pleasing to most persons.

BRAIZED TONGUE
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 fresh tongue
1/3 c. diced carrots
1/3 c. diced onions
1/3 c. diced celery
1 c. stewed tomatoes
2 c. water in which tongue is boiled

Boil the tongue as previously directed, and then skin it and remove the
roots. Place it in a long pan and pour over it the carrots, onions,
celery, stewed tomatoes, and the water. Cover tight and bake in a slow
oven for 2 hours. Serve on a platter with the vegetables and sauce.

69. STUFFED HEART.--If a stuffed meat is desired, nothing more
appetizing can be found than stuffed heart. For this purpose the heart
of a young beef should be selected in order that a tender dish
will result.

After washing the heart and removing the veins and the arteries, make a
stuffing like that given for rolled beefsteak in Art. 45. Stuff the
heart with this dressing, sprinkle salt and pepper over it, and roll it
in flour. Lay several strips of bacon or salt pork across the top, place
in a baking pan, and pour 1 cupful of water into the pan. Cover the pan
tight, set it in a hot oven, and bake slowly for 2 or 3 hours, depending
on the size of the heart. Add water as the water in the pan evaporates,
and baste the heart frequently. When it has baked sufficiently, remove
to a platter and serve at once.


MAKING GRAVY

70. To meats prepared in various ways, gravy--that is, the sauce made
from the drippings or juices that cook out of steaks, roasts, and stews,
or from the broth actually cooked from the meat as for soup--is a
valuable addition, particularly if it is well made and properly
seasoned. A point to remember in this connection is that gravy should be
entirely free from lumps and not too thick. It will be of the right
thickness if 1 to 2 level tablespoonfuls of flour is used for each pint
of liquid. It should also be kept in mind that the best gravy is made
from the brown drippings that contain some fat.

To make gravy, remove any excess of fat that is not required, and then
pour a little hot water into the pan in order to dissolve the drippings
that are to be used. Add the flour to the fat, stirring until a smooth
paste is formed. Then add the liquid, which may be water or milk, and
stir quickly to prevent the formation of lumps. Season well with salt
and pepper. Another method that also proves satisfactory is to mix the
flour and liquid and then add them to the fat that remains in the pan in
which the meat has been cooked.


TRYING OUT SUET AND OTHER FATS

71. The suet obtained from beef is a valuable source of fat for cooking,
and it should therefore never be thrown away. The process of obtaining
the fat from suet is called _trying_, and it is always practiced in
homes where economy is the rule.

To try out suet, cut the pieces into half-inch cubes, place them in a
heavy frying pan, and cover them with hot water. Allow this to come to a
boil and cook until the water has evaporated. Continue the heating until
all the fat has been drawn from the tissue. Then pour off all the liquid
fat and squeeze the remaining suet with a potato masher or in a fruit
press. Clean glass or earthen jars are good receptacles in which to keep
the fat thus recovered from the suet.

To try out other fats, proceed in the same way as for trying out suet.
Such fats may be tried by heating them in a pan without water, provided
the work is done carefully enough to prevent them from scorching.


PREPARATION OF LEFT-OVER BEEF

72. As has been shown, meat is both an expensive and a perishable food.
Therefore, some use should be made of every left-over bit of it, no
matter how small, and it should be disposed of quickly in order to
prevent it from spoiling. A point that should not be overlooked in the
use of left-over meats, however, is that they should be prepared so as
to be a contrast to the original preparation and thus avoid monotony in
the food served. This variation may be accomplished by adding other
foods and seasonings and by changing the appearance as much as possible.
For instance, what remains from a roast of beef may be cut in thin
slices and garnished to make an attractive dish; or, left-over meat may
be made very appetizing by cutting it into cubes, reheating it in gravy
or white sauce, and serving it over toast or potato patties. Then there
is the sandwich, which always finds a place in the luncheon. The meat
used for this purpose may be sliced thin or it may be chopped fine, and
then, to increase the quantity, mixed with salad dressing, celery,
olives, chopped pickles, etc. An excellent sandwich is made by placing
thin slices of roast beef between two slices of bread and serving hot
roast-beef gravy over the sandwich thus formed. Still other appetizing
dishes may be prepared from left-over beef as the accompanying
recipes show.

73. MEXICAN BEEF--An extremely appetizing dish, known as Mexican beef,
can be made from any quantity of left-over beef by serving it with a
vegetable sauce. Such a dish needs few accompaniments when it is served
in a light meal, but it may be used very satisfactorily as the main dish
in a heavy meal.

MEXICAN BEEF

2 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1 onion, chopped
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 red pepper
1 tsp. celery salt
1 green pepper
Thin slices roast beef
3/4 c. canned tomatoes

Brown the butter, add the chopped onion, and cook for a few minutes.
Then add the chopped peppers, tomatoes, salt, pepper, and celery salt.
Cook all together for a few minutes and add the thinly sliced roast
beef. When the meat has become thoroughly heated, it is ready to serve.

74. COTTAGE PIE.--A very good way to use up left-over mashed potatoes
as well as roast beef is to combine them and make a cottage pie. In this
dish, mashed potatoes take the place of the crust that is generally put
over the top of a meat pie. If well seasoned and served hot, it makes a
very palatable dish.

To make a cottage pie, cover the bottom of a baking dish with a 2-inch
layer of well-seasoned mashed potatoes. Over this spread left-over roast
beef cut into small pieces. Pour over the meat and potatoes any
left-over gravy and a few drops of onion juice made by grating raw
onion. Cover with a layer of mashed potatoes 1 inch deep. Dot with
butter and place in a hot oven until the pie has heated through and
browned on top. Serve hot.

75. BEEF PIE.--No housewife need be at a loss for a dish that will tempt
her family if she has on hand some left-over pieces of beef, for out of
them she may prepare a beef pie, which is always in favor. Cold roast
beef makes a very good pie, but it is not necessary that roast beef be
used, as left-over steak or even a combination of left-over meats, will
do very well.

Cut into 1-inch cubes whatever kinds of left-over meats are on hand.
Cover with hot water, add a sliced onion, and cook slowly for 1 hour.
Thicken the liquid with flour and season well with salt and pepper. Add
two or three potatoes, cut into 1/4-inch slices, and let them boil for
several minutes. Pour the mixture into a buttered baking dish and cover
it with a baking-powder biscuit mixture. Bake in a hot oven until the
crust is brown. Serve hot.

76. BEEF HASH.--One of the most satisfactory ways in which to utilize
left-over roast beef or corned beef is to cut it into small pieces and
make it into a hash. Cold boiled potatoes that remain from a previous
meal are usually combined with the beef, and onion is added for flavor.
When hash is prepared to resemble an omelet and is garnished with
parsley, it makes an attractive dish.

To make beef hash, remove all skin and bone from the meat, chop quite
fine, and add an equal quantity of chopped cold-boiled potatoes and one
chopped onion. Season with salt and pepper. Put the mixture into a
well-buttered frying pan, moisten with milk, meat stock, or left-over
gravy, and place over a fire. Let the hash brown slowly on the bottom
and then fold over as for an omelet. Serve on a platter garnished
with parsley.

77. FRIZZLED BEEF.--While the dried beef used in the preparation of
frizzled beef is not necessarily a left-over meat, the recipe for this
dish is given here, as it is usually served at a meal when the preceding
left-over beef dishes are appropriate. Prepared according to this
recipe, frizzled beef will be found both nutritious and appetizing.

FRIZZLED BEEF
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 Tb. butter
1/4 lb. thinly sliced dried beef
2 Tb. flour
1 c. milk
4 slices of toast

Brown the butter in a frying pan and add the beef torn into small
pieces. Allow it to cock until the beef becomes brown. Add the flour and
brown it. Pour the milk over all, and cook until the flour thickens the
milk. Serve over the toast.


MEAT (PART 1)

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) (_a_) What is meat? (_b_) What substance in meat makes it a valuable
food?

(2) (_a_) What do protein foods do for the body? (_b_) How does meat
compare in cost with the other daily foods?

(3) What harm may occur from eating meat that is not thoroughly cooked?

(4) (_a_) Describe the structure of meat, (_b_) How do the length and
the direction of the fibers affect the tenderness of meat?

(5) (_a_) How may gelatine be obtained from meat? (_b_) What use is made
of this material?

(6) (_a_) Describe the two kinds of fat found in meat, (_b_) What does
this substance supply to the body?

(7) (_a_) What is the value of water in the tissues of meat? (_b_) How
does its presence affect the cookery method to choose for
preparing meat?

(8) (_a_) What are extractives? (_b_) Why are they of value in meat?

(9) (_a_) Name the ways by which the housewife may reduce her meat bill,
(_b_) How should meat be cared for in the home?

(10) Give three reasons for cooking meat.

(11) (_a_) Describe the effect of cooking on the materials contained in
meat, (_b_) How does cooking affect the digestibility of meat?

(12) What methods of cookery are used for: (_a_) the tender cuts of
meat? (_b_) the tough cuts? (_c_) Mention the cuts of meat that have the
most flavor.

(13) (_a_) How should the temperature of the oven vary with the size of
the roast to be cooked? (_b_) Give the reason for this.

(14) Describe beef of good quality.

(15) In what parts of the animal are found: (_a_) the cheaper cuts of
beef? (_b_) the more expensive cuts?

(16) (_a_) Name the steaks obtained from the loin, (_b_) Which of these
is best for a large family? (_c_) Which is best for a small family?

(17) Describe the way in which to broil steak.

(18) (_a_) What is the tenderloin of beef? (_b_) Explain the two ways of
cooking it.

(19) (_a_) Name the various kinds of roasts, (_b_) Describe the roasting
of beef in the oven.

(20) (_a_) What cuts of beef are most satisfactory for stews? (_b_)
Explain how beef stew is made.

       *       *       *       *       *



MEAT (PART 2)

       *       *       *       *       *

VEAL

NATURE OF VEAL

1. Veal is the name applied to the flesh of a slaughtered calf. This
kind of meat is at its best in animals that are from 6 weeks to 3 months
old when killed. Calves younger than 6 weeks are sometimes slaughtered,
but their meat is of poor quality and should be avoided. Meat from a
calf that has not reached the age of 3 weeks is called bob veal. Such
meat is pale, dry, tough, and indigestible and, consequently, unfit for
food. In most states the laws strictly forbid the sale of bob veal for
food, but constant vigilance must be exercised to safeguard the public
from unscrupulous dealers. A calf that goes beyond the age of 3 months
without being slaughtered must be kept and fattened until it reaches the
age at which it can be profitably sold as beef, for it is too old to be
used as veal.

2. The nature of veal can be more readily comprehended by comparing it
with beef, the characteristics of which are now understood. Veal is
lighter in color than beef, being more nearly pink than red, and it
contains very little fat, as reference to Fig. 1, _Meat_, Part 1, will
show. The tissues of veal contain less nutriment than those of beef, but
they contain more gelatine. The flavor of veal is less pronounced than
that of beef, the difference between the age of animals used for veal
and those used for beef being responsible for this lack of flavor. These
characteristics, as well as the difference in size of corresponding
cuts, make it easy to distinguish veal from beef in the market.

CUTS OF VEAL, AND THEIR USES

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

3. The slaughtered calf from which veal is obtained is generally
delivered to the butcher in the form shown in Fig. 1; that is, with the
head, feet, and intestines removed and the carcass split into halves
through the spine. He divides each half into quarters, known as the
_fore quarter_ and the _hind quarter_, and cuts these into
smaller pieces.

4. FORE QUARTER.--The fore quarter, as shown in Fig. 1, is composed of
the neck, chuck, shoulder, fore shank, breast, and ribs. Frequently, no
distinction is made between the neck and the chuck, both of these pieces
and the fore shank being used for soups and stews. The shoulder is cut
from the ribs lying underneath, and it is generally used for roasting,
often with stuffing rolled inside of it. The breast, which is the under
part of the fore quarter and corresponds to the plate in beef, is
suitable for either roasting or stewing. When the rib bones are removed
from it, a pocket that will hold stuffing can be cut into this piece.
The ribs between the shoulder and the loin are called the _rack_; they
may be cut into chops or used as one piece for roasting.

5. HIND QUARTER.--The hind quarter, as Fig. 1 shows, is divided into the
loin, flank, leg, and hind shank. The loin and the flank are located
similarly to these same cuts in beef. In some localities, the part of
veal corresponding to the rump of beef is included with the loin, and in
others it is cut as part of the leg. When it is part of the leg, the leg
is cut off just in front of the hip bone and is separated from the lower
part of the leg, or hind shank, immediately below the hip joint. This
piece is often used for roasting, although cutlets or steaks may be cut
from it. The hind shank, which, together with the fore shank, is called
a _knuckle_, is used for soup making. When the loin and flank are cut in
a single piece, they are used for roasting.

6. VEAL ORGANS.--Certain of the organs of the calf, like those of beef
animals, are used for food. They include the heart, tongue, liver, and
kidneys, as well as the thymus and thyroid glands and the pancreas. The
heart and tongue of veal are more delicate in texture and flavor than
those of beef, but the methods of cooking them are practically the same.
The liver and kidneys of calves make very appetizing dishes and find
favor with many persons. The thymus and thyroid glands and the pancreas
are included under the term _sweetbreads_. The thymus gland, which lies
near the heart and is often called the _heart sweetbread_, is the best
one. The thyroid gland lies in the throat and is called the _throat
sweetbread_. These two glands are joined by a connecting membrane, but
this is often broken and each gland sold as a separate sweetbread. The
pancreas, which is the _stomach sweetbread_, is used less often than
the others.

7. Table of Veal Cuts.--The various cuts of veal, together with their
uses, are arranged for ready reference in Table I. Therefore, so that
the housewife may become thoroughly familiar with these facts about
veal, she is urged to make a careful study of this table.

TABLE I

NAMES OF VEAL CUTS AND ORGANS AND THEIR USES

NAME OF LARGE CUT      NAME OF SMALL CUT      USES OF CUTS

                     / Head             Soup, made dishes, gelatine
                     | Breast           Stew, made dishes, gelatine
Fore Quarter         | Ribs             Stew, made dishes, chops
                     | Shoulder         Stew, made dishes
                     \ Neck             Stew or stock, made dishes

                     / Loin             Chops, roasts
Hind Quarter         | Leg              Cutlets or fillet, sautéing, or roasting
                     \ Knuckle          Stocks, stews

                     / Brains           Made dishes, chafing dish
                     | Liver            Broiling, sautéing
Veal Organs          | Heart            Stuffed, baked
                     | Tongue           Broiled, braised
                     | Sweetbreads      Made dishes, chafing dish
                     \ Kidneys          Boiled, stew


COOKING OF VEAL

VEAL CUTS AND THEIR PREPARATION

8. In the preparation of veal, an important point to remember is that
meat of this kind always requires thorough cooking. It should never be
served rare. Because of the long cooking veal needs, together with the
difficulty encountered in chewing it and its somewhat insipid flavor,
which fails to excite the free flow of gastric juice, this meat is more
indigestable than beef. In order to render it easier to digest, since it
must be thoroughly cooked, the long, slow methods of cookery should be
selected, as these soften the connective tissue. Because of the lack of
flavor, veal is not so good as beef when the extraction of flavor is
desired for broth. However, the absence of flavor makes veal a valuable
meat to combine with chicken and the more expensive meats, particularly
in highly seasoned made dishes or salads. Although lacking in flavor,
veal contains more gelatine than other meats. While this substance is
not very valuable as a food, it lends body to soup or broth and assists
in the preparation of certain made dishes. To supply the flavor needed
in dishes of this kind, pork is sometimes used with the veal.

9. Veal Steaks or Cutlets.--Strictly speaking, veal cutlets are cut from
the ribs; however, a thin slice cut from the leg, as shown in Fig. 2,
while in reality a steak, is considered by most housewives and butchers
as a cutlet. A piece cut from the leg of veal corresponds to a cut of
round steak in beef.

10. Pan-Broiled Veal Steak or Cutlets.--Several methods of preparing
veal steak or cutlets are in practice, but a very satisfactory one is to
pan-broil them. This method prevents the juices from being drawn out of
the meat and consequently produces a tender, palatable dish.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

To pan-broil veal steak or cutlets, grease a hot frying pan with fat of
any desirable kind, place the pieces of meat in it, and allow them to
sear, first on one side and then on the other. When they are completely
seared, lower the temperature, and broil for 15 to 20 minutes, or longer
if necessary. Season well with salt and pepper. When cooked, remove to a
platter and, just before serving, pour melted butter over the meat.

11. Veal Cutlets in Brown Sauce.--To improve the flavor of veal cutlets,
a brown sauce is often prepared and served with them. In fact, the
cutlets are cooked in this sauce, which becomes thickened by the flour
that is used to dredge the meat.

To cook cutlets in this way, dredge them with flour, season them with
salt and pepper, and sauté them in hot fat until the flour is quite
brown. Then pour 1 cupful of milk and 1 cupful of water over the meat,
cover the pan securely, and allow to cook slowly for about 3/4 hour. The
sauce should be slightly thick and quite brown. Serve the cutlets in the
brown sauce.

12. Veal Roasts.--Several different cuts of veal make very good roasts.
The most economical one is a 5 or 6-inch slice cut from the leg of veal
in the same way as the steak shown in Fig. 2.

[Illustration: FIG. 3, Shoulder of veal.]

Both the loin and the best end of the neck are excellent for roasting.
The shoulder of veal, which is shown in Fig. 3, is sometimes roasted,
but it is more often used for stew. Veal breast from which the ribs have
been removed and veal rack, which is the portion of the ribs attached to
the neck, may also be used for roasting. When they are, they are usually
cut so as to contain a deep slit, or pocket, that may be filled with
stuffing. In fact, whenever it is possible, the bone is removed from a
piece of roasting veal and stuffing is put in its place.

To roast any of these pieces, wipe the meat, dredge it with flour, and
season it with salt and pepper. Place it in a roasting pan and put it
into a hot oven. Bake for 15 minutes; then lower the temperature of the
oven and continue to bake slowly until the meat is well done, the
length of time depending on the size of the roast. Baste frequently
during the roasting. Remove the roast to a hot platter. Then place the
roasting pan over the flame, and make gravy by browning 2 tablespoonfuls
of flour in the fat that it contains, adding to this 1-1/2 cupfuls of
water, and cooking until the flour has thickened the water. Serve the
gravy thus prepared in a gravy bowl.

13. Stuffed Veal Breast.--A breast of veal in which a pocket has been
cut for stuffing is shown in Fig. 4. When such a piece is
desired for roasting, it is advisable to have the butcher prepare it.
The stuffing required should be made as follows:

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

STUFFING FOR VEAL

4 Tb. butter or bacon or ham fat
1/2 Tb. salt
1/8 Tb. pepper
1 Tb. celery salt
2 sprigs of parsley, chopped
1 pimiento, chopped
1-1/2 c. water
1 qt. stale bread crumbs

Melt the fat, and to it add the salt, pepper, celery salt, parsley,
pimiento, and water. Pour this mixture over the crumbs, and mix all
thoroughly. Stuff into the opening in the breast. Place the meat thus
stuffed in a baking pan and bake in a moderately hot oven for 1 to
1-1/2 hours.

14. Veal Potpie.--A good way in which to impart the flavor of meat to a
starchy material and thus not only economize on meat, but also provide
an appetizing dish, is to serve meat with dumplings in a veal potpie.
For such a dish, a piece of veal from the shoulder, like that shown in
Fig. 3, is the best cut. To give variety, potatoes may be used, and to
improve the flavor at least one onion is cooked with the meat.

To prepare a veal potpie, wipe the meat, cut it into pieces of the right
size for serving, and to it add a few pieces of salt pork or bacon. Put
these over the fire in enough cold water to cover the meat well and add
a small onion, sliced. Bring to the boiling point and skim; then simmer
until the meat is tender. Season with salt and pepper a few minutes
before the meat has finished cooking. Next, make a baking-powder biscuit
dough, roll it 1/4 inch thick, and cut it into 1-1/2-inch squares. Then
examine the meat to see how much of the liquid has evaporated. If the
liquid is too thick, add boiling water to thin it. Drop in the squares
of dough, cover the pot tight, and boil for 15 minutes without
uncovering.

If potatoes are desired in a pie of this kind, cut them into thick
slices and add the slices about 10 minutes before the dough is to be put
into the broth, so that they will have sufficient time in which to cook.

15. Veal Stew.--The cheaper cuts of veal can be used to advantage for
making veal stew. Such a dish is prepared in the same way as beef stew,
which is explained in _Meat_, Part 1, except that veal is substituted
for the beef. Vegetables of any desired kind may be used in veal stew,
and the stewed or boiled dumplings mentioned in the beef-stew recipe may
or may not be used. As the vegetables and the dumplings, provided
dumplings are used, increase the quantity of meat-flavored food, only
small portions of the meat need be served.

16. Jellied Veal.--The large amount of gelatine contained in veal may be
utilized in the preparation of jellied veal. The most satisfactory piece
for making jellied veal is the knuckle, or shank. No more attractive
meat dish than this can be found for luncheon or supper, for it can be
cut into thin slices and served on a nicely garnished platter.

JELLIED VEAL
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Knuckle of veal
1 Tb. salt
1/4 c. chopped celery
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1 Tb. chopped onion

Put the knuckle in a pot and add enough water to cover it. Add the salt,
celery, parsley, and onion. Cook until the meat is very tender and then
strain off the liquid. Cut the meat from the bones and chop it very
fine. Boil the liquid until it is reduced to 1 pint, and then set aside
to cool. Place the meat in a mold and when cold pour the broth over it.
Keep in a cool place until it has set. Slice and serve cold.


VEAL ORGANS AND THEIR PREPARATION

17. Getting Sweetbreads Ready for Cooking--The throat glands and the
pancreas of calves, which, as has already been learned, are called
sweetbreads, can be cooked in various ways for the table. The first
process in their preparation, however, is the same for all recipes. When
this is understood, it will be a simple matter to make up attractive
dishes in which sweetbreads are used. It is generally advisable to buy
sweetbreads in pairs, as the heart and throat sweetbreads are preferable
to the one that lies near the stomach. Sweetbreads spoil very quickly.
Therefore, as soon as they are brought into the kitchen, put them in
cold water and allow them to remain there for 1/2 hour or more. Then put
them to cook in boiling water for 20 minutes in order to parboil them,
after which place them in cold water again. Unless they are to be used
immediately, keep them in cold water, as this will prevent them from
discoloring. Before using sweetbreads in the recipes that follow, remove
the skin and stringy parts.

18. Broiled Sweetbreads.--Because of their tenderness, sweetbreads are
especially suitable for broiling. When prepared in this way and served
with sauce of some kind, they are very palatable.

In order to broil sweetbreads, first parboil them in the manner just
explained. Then split each one lengthwise and broil them over a clear
fire for 5 minutes or pan-broil them with a small amount of butter until
both surfaces are slightly browned. Season with salt and pepper.
Serve hot.

19. Creamed Sweetbreads.--If an especially dainty dish is desired for a
light meal, sweetbreads may be creamed and then served over toast or in
patty shells or timbale cases, the making of which is taken up later. If
desired, mushrooms may be combined with sweetbreads that are served in
this way. Diced cold veal or calves' brains creamed and served in this
way are also delicious. Instead of creaming sweetbreads and calves'
brains, however, these organs are sometimes scrambled with eggs.

To prepare creamed sweetbreads, parboil them and then separate them
into small pieces with a fork or cut them into cubes. Reheat them in a
cupful of white sauce, season well, and then serve them in any of the
ways just mentioned. If mushrooms are to be used, cook and dice them
before combining them with the sweetbreads.

20. Kidneys.--The kidneys of both lamb and veal are used for food. The
cooking of them, however, must be either a quick, short process or a
long, slow one. When a quick method is applied, the tissues remain
tender. Additional cooking renders them tough, so that a great deal more
cooking must be done to make them tender again. Whatever method is
applied, kidneys must always be soaked in water for 1 hour or more so as
to cleanse them, the outside covering then pared off, and the meat
sliced or cut into cubes or strips. After being thus prepared, kidneys
may be broiled or sautéd, or, if a long method of cookery is preferred,
they may be boiled or stewed with or without vegetables.

21. Calves' Liver and Bacon.--Beef liver is sometimes used for food, but
it is not so good as liver from the calf. In fact, calves' liver,
especially when combined with bacon, is very appetizing. The bacon
supplies the fat that the liver lacks and at the same time
provides flavor.

To prepare calves' liver and bacon, cut the liver into 1/2-inch slices,
cover these with boiling water, and let them stand for 5 minutes. Remove
from the water, dip into flour, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. For
each slice of liver pan-broil a slice of bacon. Remove the bacon to a
hot platter, and then place the slices of liver in the bacon fat and
sauté them for about 10 minutes, turning them frequently. Serve the
liver and bacon together.


PREPARATION OF LEFT-OVER VEAL

22. Veal Rolls.--The portion of a veal roast that remains after it has
been served hot can be combined with dressing to make veal rolls, a dish
that will be a pleasing change from the usual cold sliced meat.

To make veal rolls, slice the veal and into each slice roll a spoonful
of stuffing. Tie with a string, roll in flour, and sprinkle with salt
and pepper. Brown the rolls in hot butter. Then pour milk, stock, or
gravy over the rolls and simmer for 10 minutes. Remove the strings and
serve on toast.

23. Left-Over Jellied Veal.--While jellied veal is usually made from a
piece of veal bought especially for this purpose, it can be made from
the left-overs of a veal roast. However, when the roast is purchased,
some veal bones should be secured. Wash these bones, cover them with
cold water, and to them add 1 onion, 1 bay leaf, and 1 cupful of diced
vegetables, preferably celery, carrots, and turnips. Allow these to
simmer for 2 hours. To this stock add the bones that remain after the
roast has been served and simmer for 1 or 2 hours more. Strain the
stock, skim off the fat, and season well with salt and pepper. Chop fine
the left-over veal and 2 hard-cooked eggs. Put in a loaf-cake pan and
pour the stock over it. When it has formed a mold, slice and serve cold.

24. Creamed Veal on Biscuits.--A very good substitute for chicken and
hot biscuits is creamed veal served on biscuits. This is an especially
good dish for a light meal, such as luncheon or supper. Any left-over
veal may be chopped or cut up into small pieces and used for this
purpose. After the veal has been thus prepared, reheat it with white
sauce and season it well with paprika, salt, and pepper. Make
baking-powder biscuits. To serve, split the hot biscuits, lay them open
on a platter or a plate, and pour the hot creamed veal over them.

25. Scalloped Veal with Rice.--A very palatable dish can be prepared
from left-over veal by combining it with rice and tomatoes. To prepare
such a dish, season cooked rice with 1 teaspoonful of bacon fat to each
cupful of rice. Place a layer of rice in a baking dish, and over it put
a layer of chopped veal. Pour a good quantity of stewed tomatoes over
the veal and season well with salt and pepper. Over the tomatoes put a
layer of rice, and cover the top with buttered crumbs. Set in a hot oven
and bake until the crumbs are browned and the ingredients
thoroughly heated.

26. Veal Salad.--A salad is always a delightful addition to a meal and
so usually finds favor. When it is made of meat, such as veal, it can be
used as the main dish for luncheon or supper. As shown in the
accompanying recipe, other things, such as celery, peas, and hard-cooked
eggs, are usually put in a salad of this kind.

VEAL SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. cold diced veal
1 c. diced celery
1/2 c. canned peas
3 hard-cooked eggs
4 Tb. olive oil
2 Tb. vinegar
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Combine the veal, celery, peas, and eggs chopped fine. Mix the olive
oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper to make a dressing. Marinate the
ingredients with this dressing. Serve on lettuce leaves with any salad
dressing desired.



MUTTON AND LAMB

COMPARISON OF MUTTON AND LAMB

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

27. The term mutton is usually applied to the flesh of a sheep that is 1
year or more old, while lamb is the flesh of sheep under 1 year of age.
The popularity of these meats varies very much with the locality. In the
United States, a preference for lamb has become noticeable, but in
England mutton is more popular and is more commonly used. Both of these
meats, however, are very palatable and nutritious, so that the choice
of one or the other will always be determined by the taste or market
conditions.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

28. Lamb that is 6 weeks to 3 months old is called _spring lamb_, and
usually comes into the market in January or February. The meat of sheep
1 year old is called _yearling_. Good mutton is cut from sheep that is
about 3 years old. Lamb may be eaten as soon as it is killed, but mutton
requires ripening for 2 or 3 weeks to be in the best condition for food.
Mutton differs from lamb very much as beef differs from veal, or as the
meat of any other mature animal differs from a young one of the same
kind. In mutton there is a smaller percentage of water and a larger
percentage of fat, protein, extractives, and flavoring substances.

There is also a difference in the appearance of these two meats. Lamb is
pink and contains only small amounts of fat, while mutton is brick red
and usually has considerable firm white fat. The bones of lamb are pink,
while those of mutton are white. The outside of lamb is covered with a
thin white skin that becomes pink in mutton. The size of the pieces of
meat often aids in distinguishing between these two meats, mutton, of
course, coming in larger pieces than lamb.

29. If there is any question as to whether the meat from sheep is lamb
or mutton, and it cannot be settled by any of the characteristics
already mentioned, the front leg of the dressed animal may be examined
at the first joint above the foot. Fig. 5 shows this joint in both lamb
and mutton. In lamb, which is shown at the left, the end of the bone can
be separated from the long bone at the leg, as indicated, while in
mutton this joint grows fast and looks like the illustration at the
right. The joint is jagged in lamb, but smooth and round in mutton.


CUTS OF MUTTON AND LAMB

METHOD OF OBTAINING CUTS

30. Mutton and lamb are usually cut up in the same way, the dressed
animal being divided into two pieces of almost equal weight. The line of
division occurs between the first and second ribs, as is indicated by
the heavy middle line in Fig. 6. The back half of the animal is called
the _saddle_ and the front half, the _rack_. In addition to being cut in
this way, the animal is cut down the entire length of the backbone and
is thus divided into the fore and hind quarters.

The method of cutting up the racks and saddles varies in different
localities, but, as a rule, the method illustrated in Fig. 7 is the one
that is used. As here shown, the rack, or fore quarter, is cut up into
the neck, chuck, shoulder, rib chops, and breast; and the saddle, or
hind quarter, is divided into the loin, flank, and leg.

The way in which the front and the back of a dressed sheep appear is
shown in Fig. 8. The membrane, which extends from the legs down over the
ribs, is the omentum, or covering of the intestines, and is known as the
_caul_. This must be removed from any part that it covers before the
meat is cooked. The kidneys incased in fat are also shown in the view
at the left.


NAMES AND USES OF CUTS

31. Distinguishing Features of Cuts.--When the uses of the cuts of lamb
and mutton are to be considered, attention must be given to the anatomy
of the animal and the exercise that the different parts have received
during life. This is important, because the continued action of the
muscles tends to make the flesh tough, but, at the same time, it
increases the amount of extractives or flavoring material. Therefore,
meat taken from a part that has been subjected to much muscular action
is likely to need longer cooking than that taken from portions that have
not been exercised so much.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

In lamb and mutton, as in beef and veal, the hind quarter is exercised
less in life than the fore quarter and consequently is, on the average,
more tender. The cuts from this part are therefore more expensive and
more suitable for roasting and broiling. The fore quarter, although
having the disadvantage of containing more bone and being tougher, is
more abundantly supplied with extractives and flavoring materials. Most
of the pieces obtained from this portion are particularly suitable for
broths, soups, stews, etc. The rib is an exception, for this is usually
higher in price than the hind-quarter pieces and is used for chops
and roasts.

32. Table of Mutton and Lamb Cuts.--The various cuts of mutton and lamb
and the uses to which they can be put are given in Table II, which may
be followed as a guide whenever there is doubt as to the way in which a
cut of either of these meats should be cooked.

TABLE II

NAMES AND USES OF MUTTON AND LAMB CUTS

NAME OF LARGE CUT     NAME OF SMALL CUT     USES OF CUTS
Fore quarter:
              Neck...................Broth, stew
              Chuck.................. Stew, steamed
              Shoulder................Boiled, steamed, braised, roast
              Rack ribs...............Chops, crown roast
              Breast.................. Stew, roast, braised, stuffed

Hind quarter:
              Loin.................... Seven chops, roast, boiling
              Flank................... Stew
              Leg..................... Roast, braising, broiling
              Saddle.................. Roast


COOKING OF MUTTON AND LAMB


PREPARATION OF ROASTS, CHOPS, AND STEWS

33. The cookery processes applied in preparing mutton and lamb for the
table do not differ materially from those applied in the preparation of
other meats. However, directions for cooking mutton and lamb in the most
practical ways are here given, so that the housewife may become
thoroughly familiar with the procedure in preparing roasts, chops,
and stews.

[Illustration: FIG. 9 (_a_)]

[Illustration: FIG. 9 (_b_)]

34. Roast Leg of Mutton or Lamb.--Of all the principal cuts of mutton or
lamb, the leg contains the smallest percentage of waste. It is,
therefore, especially suitable for roasting and is generally used for
this purpose. In Fig. 9 are shown two views of a leg of lamb or mutton.
That in (_a_) illustrates the leg with part of the loin attached, and
that in (_b_), the leg trimmed and ready for cooking. In order to make
the leg smaller, a slice resembling a round steak of beef is sometimes
cut for broiling, as here shown. If desired, the leg may be boned and
then stuffed before roasting. Since these meats are characterized by a
very marked flavor, something tart or acid is generally served
with them.

To roast a leg of lamb or mutton, remove the caul, the pink skin, and
the superfluous fat. Dredge the leg with flour, salt, and pepper, set in
a roasting pan, and place in a hot oven. After the meat has cooked for
15 minutes, lower the temperature, and bake for 2 hours. Baste
frequently with water to which has been added a small amount of bacon or
ham fat and which should be put in the pan with the meat. Serve hot with
something acid, such as mint sauce, currant or mint jelly, or
spiced fruit.

A mint sauce that will be found satisfactory for this purpose is made as
follows:

MINT SAUCE

2 Tb. powdered sugar
1/2 c. vinegar
1/4 c. finely chopped mint leaves,
  or 2 Tb. dried mint

Add the sugar to the vinegar and heat. Pour this over the mint and steep
on the back of the stove for 30 minutes.

35. Roast Saddle of Mutton.--While saddle is the name applied to the
hind quarters of lamb and mutton, this term, as used in the cooking of
such meat, refers to the piece that consists of the two sides of the
loin cut off in one piece. It may be cut with or without the flank. In
either form, it is rolled and then skewered or tied into shape.

To roast such a piece, remove all superfluous fat, dredge with flour,
salt, and pepper, place in a pan, and sear in a hot oven. Then reduce
the heat, place a small quantity of water in the pan, and bake for 2-1/2
to 3 hours, basting from time to time during this cooking process. Serve
with or without mint sauce, as desired.

36. Crown Roast of Lamb.--A very attractive roast is made by cutting the
same number of corresponding ribs from each side of the lamb and
trimming back the meat from the end of each rib. Such a roast is called
a crown roast. Fig. 10 shows a crown roast with the ribs trimmed, the
two pieces fastened together, and paper frills placed on the ends of the
bones. Such frills are usually added by the butcher, but they may be
purchased in supply stores and put on in the home.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

To prepare a roast of this kind, cook in the same way as a roast leg or
saddle. When it is sufficiently baked, fill the center with a cooked and
seasoned vegetable. Brussels sprouts, peas, string beans, asparagus, and
cauliflower are especially suitable for this purpose. Just before
serving, cover the ends of the bones with paper frills, as shown in the
illustration.

37. Lamb and Mutton Chops.--Chops of mutton or lamb are obtained from
two sources. They may be cut from the ribs and have one bone in each cut
or they may be cut from the loin, when they correspond to the steaks
in beef. The loins and ribs of lamb, which are sometimes used for
rolled racks, but from which chops are usually cut, are shown in
Fig. 11. A rib chop cut from this piece has only a small part
of solid lean meat and contains one rib bone. Such a chop can
be made into a French chop, as shown in Fig. 12, by trimming
the meat from the bone down to the lean part, or "eye," of the chop.
Just before being served, a paper frill may be placed over the bone of a
chop of this kind. Chops cut from the loin often have a strip of bacon
or salt pork rolled around the edge and fastened with a skewer, as shown
in Fig. 13.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

38. The most satisfactory way in which to prepare chops is either to
broil them in a broiler or to pan-broil them. Apply to the cooking of
them the same principles that relate to the preparation of steaks; that
is, have the pan or broiler hot, sear the chops quickly on both sides,
and then cook them more slowly until well done, turning them
frequently. The broiling of lamb chops should require only from 8 to 10
minutes, as they are seldom more than 1 inch thick.

39. Lamb and Mutton Stews.--The cheaper cuts of lamb and mutton, such as
the neck, chuck, and flank, are used for the making of stews. Mutton,
however, is not so satisfactory as lamb for such dishes, as its flavor
is too strong. If mutton must be used, its flavor can be improved by
adding 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar during the cooking. The chief
object in the making of lamb and mutton stews is, as in the case of beef
and veal stews, to draw from the meat as much as possible of the
flavoring and nutritive materials.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

This can be accomplished by cutting up the meat into small pieces so as
to increase the amount of surface exposed and by keeping the temperature
low enough to prevent the proteins from coagulating.

With these points in mind, proceed in the making of lamb or mutton stew
in the same way as for beef stew. To improve the flavor of the stew,
cook with it savory herbs and spices, such as bay leaf, parsley,
and cloves.


PREPARATION OF LEFT-OVER LAMB AND MUTTON

40. Turkish Lamb.--No left-over meat lends itself more readily to the
preparation of made dishes than lamb. Combined with tomatoes and rice
and flavored with horseradish, it makes a very appetizing dish called
Turkish lamb. The accompanying recipe should be carefully followed in
preparing this dish.

TURKISH LAMB
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
1 onion, chopped
1/2 c. rice
1 c. water
1 c. stewed tomatoes
1-1/2 c. diced lamb or mutton
1 Tb. horseradish
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Put the butter in a frying pan and to it add the chopped onion and the
dry rice. Cook until the rice is browned. Then pour in the water and
tomatoes and add the meat, horseradish, salt, and pepper. Simmer gently
until the rice is completely cooked.

41. MINCED LAMB ON TOAST.--Any lamb that remains after a meal may be
minced by chopping it fine or putting it through the food chopper. If it
is then heated, moistened well with water or stock, and thickened
slightly, it makes an excellent preparation to serve on toast.

After mincing lean pieces of left-over lamb until they are very fine,
put them in a buttered frying pan. Dredge the meat well with flour and
allow it to brown slightly. Add enough water or stock to moisten well.
Season with salt and pepper, cook until the flour has thickened, and
then serve on toast.

42. SCALLOPED LAMB OR MUTTON.--As a scalloped dish is usually pleasing
to most persons, the accompanying recipe for scalloped lamb or mutton
will undoubtedly find favor. Both macaroni and tomatoes are combined
with the meat in this dish, but rice could be substituted for the
macaroni, if desired.

To make scalloped lamb or mutton, arrange a layer of buttered crumbs in
a baking dish, and on top of them place a layer of cooked macaroni, a
layer of meat, and then another layer of macaroni. Over this pour enough
stewed tomato to moisten the whole well. Season each layer with salt,
pepper, and butter. Over the top, place a layer of buttered crumbs. Bake
in a medium-hot oven until the whole is thoroughly heated.

43. SPANISH STEW.--Left-over pieces of mutton or lamb may also form the
foundation of a very appetizing dish known as Spanish stew. Here
tomatoes are also used, and to give the stew flavor chilli sauce
is added.

SPANISH STEW
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter.
1 onion, sliced
1 Tb. flour
2 c. lamb or mutton, diced
1-1/2 c. stewed tomatoes
1 c. stock or gravy
1 Tb. chilli sauce
1 red pepper, cut fine
2 tsp. salt

Put the butter in a frying pan and brown the sliced onion in it. Add the
flour and meat, and after browning them pour in the stewed tomatoes and
the stock or gravy. Season with the chilli sauce, the red pepper, and
the salt. Cover and let simmer until the whole is well thickened
and blended.

44. INDIVIDUAL LAMB PIES.--Individual pies are always welcome, but when
they are made of lamb or mutton they are especially attractive. The
proportions required for pies of this kind are given in the
accompanying recipe.

INDIVIDUAL LAMB PIES

2 c. diced lamb or mutton
1/2 c. diced carrots
1/2 c. peas, cooked or canned
1 c. gravy or thickened stock

Cut into small pieces any left-over lamb or mutton. Cook the carrots
until they are soft, add them, together with the peas, to the meat, and
pour the gravy or thickened stock over all. Simmer gently for a few
minutes. Line patty pans with a thin layer of baking-powder biscuit
dough, fill with the mixture, and cover the top with another thin layer
of the dough. Bake in a quick oven until the dough is baked.

       *       *       *       *       *

PORK

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PORK

45. PORK is the flesh of slaughtered swine used as food. It is believed
to be more indigestible than other meats, but if it is obtained from a
young and properly fed animal, it is not only digestible, but highly
appetizing, and, when eaten occasionally, it is very wholesome.

The age of the animal from which pork is cut can be determined by the
thickness of the skin; the older the animal, the thicker the skin. To be
of the best kind, pork should have pink, not red, flesh composed of
fine-grained tissues, and its fat, which, in a well-fattened animal,
equals about one-eighth of the entire weight, should be white and firm.
Although all cuts of pork contain some fat, the proportion should not be
too great, or the pieces will not contain as much lean as they should.
However, the large amount of fat contained in pork makes its food value
higher than that of other meats, unless they are excessively fat, and
consequently difficult of digestion.

46. One of the chief advantages of pork is that about nine-tenths of
the entire dressed animal may be preserved by curing and smoking.
Originally, these processes required a period of 2 to 3 months for their
completion, but they have gradually been shortened until now only a few
days are required for the work. Pork cured and smoked by the new
methods, however, does not possess such excellent flavor and such good
keeping qualities as that so treated by the longer process. Any one who
has the right storage facilities to care for the meat properly will find
it much more economical to purchase a whole carcass or a part of one and
then salt, smoke, or pickle the various pieces that can be treated in
this way than to purchase this meat cut by cut as it is needed
or desired.


CUTS OF PORK

47. NAMES OF PORK CUTS.--The butcher usually buys a whole carcass of
pork. He first divides it into halves by splitting it through the spine,
and then cuts it up into smaller pieces according to the divisions shown
in Fig. 14, which illustrates the outside and the inside of a dressed
hog. As will be observed, the method of cutting up a hog differs greatly
from the cutting of the animals already studied. After the head is
removed, each side is divided into the shoulder, clear back fat, ribs,
loin, middle cut, belly, ham, and two hocks.

48. USES OF PORK CUTS.--Hogs are usually fattened before they are
slaughtered, and as a result there is a layer of fat under the skin
which is trimmed off and used in the making of lard. The best quality of
lard, however, is made from the fat that surrounds the kidneys. This is
called _leaf lard_, because the pieces of fat are similar in shape to
leaves. Such lard has a higher melting point and is more flaky than that
made from fat covering the muscles.

49. The head of pork does not contain a great deal of meat, but, as the
quality of this meat is very good, it is valuable for a number of
special dishes, such as headcheese and scrapple.

The hocks contain considerable gelatine, so they are used for dishes
that solidify, or become firm, after they are made.

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

50. A shoulder of pork cut roughly from the carcass is shown in Fig. 15.
This piece provides both roasts and steaks, or, when trimmed, it may
be cured or smoked. The front leg, which is usually cut to include the
lower part of the shoulder, is shown in Fig. 16. The ribs inside this
cut, when cut from underneath, are sold as spareribs. This piece, as
shown in Fig. 17, is generally trimmed to make what is known as
shoulder ham.

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

51. The ribs and the loin cut in one piece are shown in Fig. 18. From
this piece are obtained the most desirable chops and roasts. When a
roast is desired, the rib bones are removed from the rib cut, which then
resembles the piece shown in Fig. 19. Directly under the backbone in
these cuts is the tenderest piece of pork to be had. When this is
removed in one piece, it is, as in beef, called the _tenderloin_. Very
often, however, it is left in to be cut up with the rest of the loin.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

52. The middle cut is commonly used for bacon, while the belly is most
suitable for salt pork. These two cuts consist of large quantities of
fat and only narrow layers of lean. They are especially valuable for
enriching and flavoring foods, such as beans, that are neither rich in
fat nor highly flavored.

[Illustration: FIG. 20]

53. The hind leg, or untrimmed ham, just as it is cut from the carcass,
is shown in Fig. 20. When this piece is trimmed and ready for curing or
for roasting, it appears as shown in Fig. 21. As will be noticed, the
outside skin, or rind, is not removed from either the shoulder or
the ham.

[Illustration: FIG. 21]

54. TABLE OF PORK CUTS.--As is done in explaining the meats that have
been considered previously, there is here presented a table, designated
as Table III, that gives the names of the pork cuts and the uses to
which they may be put. This table will assist the housewife materially
in learning the names and uses of the various cuts of pork.

TABLE III

NAMES AND USES OF PORK CUTS

NAMES OF CUTS                  USES OF CUTS

Head                           Headcheese, boiling, baking
Shoulder                       Steaks, roasting, curing, smoking
Spareribs                      Roasting, boiling
Belly                          Salt pork, curing
Middle cut                     Bacon, curing, smoking
Ribs                           Chops, roasting
Loin                           Chops, roasting
Ham                            Roasting, curing, smoking
Back fat                       Lard
Hock                           Boiling, making jelly
Internal organs and trimmings  Sausage

       *       *       *       *       *

COOKING OF PORK

FRESH PORK AND ITS PREPARATION

55. ROAST PORK.--In the preparation of pork for the table, and a roast
in particular, several points must be taken into consideration. Unlike
beef, which is often served rare, pork must be well done in order to be
satisfactory. Rare pork to most persons is repulsive. Also, as a large
part of the surface of a pork roast, especially one cut from the
shoulder, loin, or ribs, is covered with a layer of fat, pork does not
have to be seared to prevent the loss of juice, nor does it have to be
put into such a hot oven as that required for beef. In fact, if the
temperature of the oven is very high, the outside will finish cooking
before the heat has had a chance to penetrate sufficiently to cook the
center. While this makes no difference with meat that does not need to
be thoroughly cooked, it is a decided disadvantage in the case of pork.

56. When a shoulder of pork is to be roasted, it makes a very
satisfactory dish if it is boned and stuffed before roasting. To bone
such a piece, run a long, narrow knife all around the bone and cut it
loose; then pick up the bone by one end and shake it until it will pull
out. Fill the opening thus formed with bread or cracker stuffing.

If an especially inviting roast of pork is desired, a _crown roast_
should be selected, for this is just as attractive as a crown roast of
lamb. It is made by cutting corresponding pieces from each side of the
rib piece, trimming the bones clean as far back as the lean part of the
chops, and fastening the pieces together. A garnish of fried apple rings
is very attractive for such a roast.

57. To cook a roast of any of these varieties, wipe the meat thoroughly,
dredge it with flour, salt, and pepper, and place it on a rack in a
dripping pan. Bake about 3 hours, depending on the size of the roast,
and baste every 15 minutes with fat from the bottom of the dripping pan.

After the roast is removed from the roasting pan, make a gravy as for
any other roast. Serve with apple sauce, baked apples, cranberry sauce,
chilli sauce, pickles, or some other acid dish. Such an accompaniment
aids considerably in the digestion of pork, for it cuts the large amount
of fat that this meat contains and that so often retards the digestion,
and hastens the fat through the stomach.

58. ROAST PIG.--In some households, roasted pig is the favorite meat for
the Thanksgiving or the Christmas dinner. There is sufficient reason for
its popularity, for when properly prepared and attractively garnished,
roasted pig offers a pleasing change from the meat usually served on
such days.

To be suitable for roasting, a pig should be not more than 1 month or 6
weeks old and should not weigh more than 7 or 8 pounds after it is
cleaned. The butcher should prepare it for cooking by scalding off the
hair, washing the pig thoroughly, inside and out, and withdrawing the
entrails of the animal through an incision made in the under part of
the body.

59. When the pig is received in the home, wash it thoroughly, within and
without, wipe it dry, and fill it with stuffing. To make a stuffing
suitable for this purpose, season 2 quarts of fine bread crumbs with 4
tablespoonfuls of chopped onion, 2 teaspoonfuls of salt, 1 teaspoonful
of pepper, and cupful of melted butter. Mix thoroughly and add 3 beaten
eggs. If the stuffing needs moisture, add water or milk. Stuff the pig
firmly with this stuffing, using every effort to restore its original
shape. Then sew up the opening and truss the animal; that is, draw the
hind legs forwards and bend the front legs backwards under the body, and
skewer and tie them into place.

With the animal in this shape, wipe it off with a damp cloth, dredge it
with flour, and place it in a dripping pan, adding 1 cupful of boiling
water in which 1 teaspoonful of salt has been dissolved. Roast in a
moderate oven for at least 1-1/2 hours, or 20 minutes for each pound of
pig. Baste frequently, first with butter and water and later with
drippings. When the skin begins to brown slightly, rub over it a clean
piece of cloth dipped in melted butter. Repeat this operation every 10
minutes until the meat is well done. Then remove the pig to a hot
platter and garnish with parsley, lettuce, celery, or fried or baked
apples. If a more ornamental garnishing is desired, place a lemon in the
mouth and use cranberries for the eyes. In carving, cut the head off,
split through the spine lengthwise, remove the legs, and cut the ribs so
as to form chops.

60. SAUTÉD OR BROILED PORK.--Slices cut from the ribs and loin of pork
are called chops, and those obtained from the shoulder and hind legs are
called steaks. These, together with the tenderloin, the small piece of
lean, tender meat lying under the bones of the loin and seldom weighing
more than a pound, are especially suitable for sautéing or broiling.
When they are to be prepared by these processes, sauté or broil them as
any other meat, remembering, however, that pork must be well done.
Because of this fact, a more moderate temperature must be employed than
that used for beefsteak.

61. PORK CHOPS IN TOMATO SAUCE.--A slight change from the usual way of
preparing pork chops can be had by cooking them with tomatoes. The
combination of these two foods produces a dish having a very
agreeable flavor.

First brown the chops in their own fat in a frying pan, turning them
frequently so that the surfaces will become evenly browned. When they
have cooked for 15 minutes, pour enough strained stewed tomatoes over
them to cover them well, and season with salt and pepper. Cover the pan
tight, and allow them to simmer until the tomatoes become quite thick.
Place the chops on a hot platter, pour the tomato sauce over them, and
serve hot.

62. SAUTÉD TENDERLOIN OF PORK.--Since the tenderloin of pork is a very
tender piece of meat, it needs no accompaniment to make it a delicious
dish, but sometimes a change of preparation is welcomed in order to give
variety to the diet. The accompanying directions should therefore be
followed when something different from broiled tenderloin is desired.

Cut the tenderloin into lengthwise slices and brown these slices in
melted butter, turning them several times. Then remove to a cooler part
of the stove, and let them cook slowly in the butter for 15 minutes,
taking care to have them closely covered and turning them once or twice
so that they will cook evenly. At the end of this time, pour enough milk
or cream in the pan to cover the meat well and cook for 15 minutes
longer. With a skimmer, remove the meat, which should be very tender by
this time, from the pan, and put it where it will keep hot. Make a gravy
of the drippings that remain in the pan by thickening it with 1
tablespoonful of flour, stirring it until it is thick and smooth and
seasoning it to taste with salt and pepper. Pour the gravy over the meat
and serve hot.

63. PORK SAUSAGE.--The trimmings and some of the internal organs of pork
are generally utilized to make sausage by chopping them very fine and
then highly seasoning the chopped meat. Pork in this form may be bought
fresh or smoked and loose or in casings. It usually contains
considerable fat and therefore shrinks upon being cooked, for the fat is
melted by the heat and runs out of the sausage.

To cook pork sausages put up in casings, place the required number in a
hot frying pan with a small quantity of hot water. Cover the pan with a
lid and allow the sausages to cook. When they have swelled up and the
skins, or casings, look as if they would burst, remove the cover and
thoroughly prick each one with a sharp fork, so as to allow the fat and
the water to run out. Then allow the water to evaporate and sauté the
sausages in their own fat, turning them frequently until they are
well browned.

To cook loose pork sausage, shape it into thin, flat cakes. Grease a
frying pan slightly, in order to keep the cakes from sticking to the
surface, place the cakes in the pan, and allow them to cook in the fat
that fries out, turning them occasionally until both sides are
well browned.


CURED PORK AND ITS PREPARATION

64. Under the heading of cured pork may be included many of the cuts of
pork, for a large part of a pork carcass can be preserved by curing.
However, this term is usually restricted to include salt pork, bacon,
and ham. As has already been learned, salt pork is obtained from the
belly; bacon, from the middle cut; and ham, from the two hind legs
of pork.

65. SALT PORK.--As the cut used for salt pork is almost entirely fat,
this piece is seldom used alone for the table. Occasionally, it is
broiled to be served with some special food, such as fried apples, but
for the most part it is used for _larding_; that is, slices of it are
laid across the surface of meat and fish that are lacking in fat and
that therefore cook better and have a more agreeable flavor when fat in
some form is added. Pork of this kind is usually bought by the pound and
then sliced by the housewife as it is needed for cooking purposes.

[Illustration: FIG. 22]

66. BACON.--The middle cut of pork, upon being cured by smoking, is
regarded as bacon. It is sometimes used for larding purposes, but as it
contains more lean than salt pork, has a very pleasing flavor, and is
the most easily digested fat known, it is much used for food. A piece
that contains the usual proportion of fat and lean is shown in Fig. 22.
The strip of fat that occurs between the rind, or outer coat, and the
first layer of lean is the firmest and the best for larding. The fat
that fries out of bacon is excellent for use in the cooking and
seasoning of other foods, such as vegetables and meats. When bacon is
cooked for the table, its flavor will be improved if it is broiled
rather than fried in its own fat. The rind of bacon should, as a rule,
be trimmed off, but it should never be wasted, for it may be used to
grease a pancake griddle or any pan in which food is to be cooked,
provided the bacon flavor will not be objectionable.

In purchasing bacon, it is usually more economical to buy the whole
side, or the entire middle cut, but if smaller quantities are desired,
any amount, either in one piece or in slices, may be bought. The
commercially cut bacon, which is very thin and becomes very crisp in its
preparation, may be bought with the rind retained or removed. In both of
these forms, it is often put up in jars or packed neatly in flat
pasteboard boxes. While such bacon is undoubtedly the most popular kind,
it should be remembered that the more preparation that is put on such a
food before it enters the home, the more expensive it becomes. Very
satisfactory results can be obtained from bacon bought in the piece if
care is used in cutting it. To secure very thin, even slices, a knife
having a thin blade that is kept sharp and in good condition should
always be used.

67. BACON AND EGGS.--There are many combinations in which bacon is one
of the foods, but no more palatable one can be found than bacon and
eggs. This is generally a breakfast dish; still there is no reason why
it cannot be used at times for luncheon or supper to give variety.

To prepare this combination of foods, first pan-broil the desired number
of slices of bacon in a hot frying pan until they are crisp and then
remove them to a warm platter. Into the fat that has fried out of the
bacon, put the required number of eggs, which have first been broken
into a saucer. Fry them until they reach the desired degree of hardness,
and then remove to the platter containing the bacon. Serve by placing a
slice or two of bacon on the plate with each egg.

68. BACON COMBINED WITH OTHER FOODS.--Many other foods may be fried in
the same way as eggs and served with bacon. For instance, sliced apples
or sliced tomatoes fried in bacon fat until they become tender, but not
mushy, are delicious when served with crisp pieces of bacon. Also, cold
cereals, such as cream of wheat, oatmeal, corn-meal mush, etc., may be
sliced and fried until crisp and then served with bacon.

69. HAM.--The hind leg of pork, when cured and smoked, is usually known
as ham. Fig. 23 shows a ham from which the rind has not been removed. In
such a ham, the proportion of fat and lean is about right, but when ham
is bought with the rind removed, much of the fat is also taken off. The
best hams weigh from 8 to 15 pounds, and have a thin skin, solid fat,
and a small, short tapering leg or shank.

Several ways of cooking ham are in practice. Very often slices
resembling slices of round steak are cut from the whole ham and then
fried or broiled. If a larger quantity is desired, the entire ham or a
thick cut may be purchased. This is boiled or baked and then served hot
or cold. It is a good idea to purchase an entire ham and keep it in
supply, cutting off slices as they are desired. In such an event, the
ham should be kept carefully wrapped and should be hung in a cool, dry
place. In cutting a ham, begin at the large end, as in Fig. 23, and cut
off slices until the opposite end becomes too small to make good slices.
The piece that remains may be cooked with vegetables, may be boiled and
served either hot or cold, or, if it is only a small piece, may be used
for making soup.

[Illustration: FIG. 23]

70. BROILED HAM.--The methods of broiling and pan broiling are very
satisfactory when applied to ham that is cut in slices. Ham is
pan-broiled in the same way as other meats. To broil ham, place slices 1
inch thick on the hot broiler rack and sear quickly on both sides. Then
reduce the temperature and broil for 15 to 18 minutes, turning the ham
every few minutes until done. Remove to a hot platter. Add a little
water to the drippings in the broiler pan, pour this over the meat, and
serve at once.

71. HAM BAKED IN MILK.--A change from the usual ways of preparing
slices of ham can be had by baking them in milk. A point to remember in
carrying out this method is that the meat must bake slowly in order to
be tender when it is done.

Secure a 2-inch slice of ham, place it in a dripping pan, and completely
cover it with milk. Put in a moderate oven and cook for 2 or more hours.
When the ham is done, its surface should be brown and the milk should be
almost entirely evaporated. If the liquid added in the beginning is not
sufficient, more may be added during the baking.

72. BOILED HAM.--Sometimes it is desired to cook an entire ham,
particularly when a large number of persons are to be served. The usual
way to prepare a whole ham is to boil it. When it is sufficiently
cooked, it may be served hot or kept until it is cold and then served in
slices. Nothing is more appetizing for a light meal, as luncheon or
supper, or for picnic lunches than cold sliced ham. Then, too, boiled
ham is very delicious when it is fried until the edges are crisp.

To prepare boiled ham, first soak the ham in cold water for several
hours and then remove it and scrub it. Place it in a large kettle with
the fat side down and cover well with cold water. Put over a slow fire
and allow to come to the boiling point very slowly. Boil for 15 minutes
and skim off the scum that has risen. Simmer slowly for about 5 hours,
or at least 25 minutes for each pound of ham. Take from the kettle and
remove the skin about two-thirds of the way back. It will be found that
the skin will peel off easily when the ham is cooked enough. Garnish in
any desirable way and serve hot or cold.

73. BAKED HAM.--Another very appetizing way in which to cook an entire
ham is to bake it. This involves both cooking in water on the top of the
stove and baking in the oven. While this recipe, as well as those
preceding, specifies ham, it should be remembered that shoulder may be
cooked in the same ways.

For baked ham, proceed in the way just explained for boiled ham, but
boil only 12 minutes for each pound. Take the ham from the kettle and
allow it to cool enough to permit it to be handled. Remove the skin.
Then place the ham in a roasting pan and pour over it 1 cupful of water.
Bake 12 minutes for each pound and baste frequently while baking. Serve
hot or cold.

PREPARATION OP LEFT-OVER PORK

74. COLD PORK WITH FRIED APPLES.--A combination that most persons find
agreeable and that enables the housewife to use up left-over pork, is
cold pork and fried apples. To prepare this dish, remove the cores from
sour apples and cut the apples into 1/2-inch slices. Put these in a
frying pan containing hot bacon fat and fry until soft and well browned.
Slice cold pork thin and place in the center of a platter. Arrange the
apples around the pork in a border.

75. SCALLOPED PORK AND CABBAGE.--If not enough pork remains to serve
alone, it can be combined with cabbage to make a most appetizing
scalloped dish. The accompanying recipe shows just how to prepare such
a dish.

SCALLOPED PORK AND CABBAGE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. small thin slices of pork
1-1/2 c. cooked chopped cabbage
1-1/2 c. thin white sauce
1/4 c. buttered crumbs

Arrange the pork and cabbage in layers in a baking dish, having a layer
of cabbage on top. Pour the white sauce over all and sprinkle the crumbs
on top. Bake until the sauce boils and the crumbs are brown.

76. MOCK CHICKEN SALAD.--The similarity in appearance of pork to chicken
makes it possible to prepare a salad of cold pork that is a very good
substitute for chicken salad. A salad of this kind can be used as the
main dish in such a meal as luncheon or supper.

MOCK CHICKEN SALAD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 Tb. vinegar
2 c. diced pork
1-1/2 c. diced celery
Salad dressing

Heat the vinegar and pour it over the diced pork. Set aside to chill.
When ready to serve, add the diced celery and mix well. Pour the salad
dressing over all and serve on crisp lettuce leaves.


SERVING AND CARVING OF MEAT

77. The manner of carving and serving meat in the home depends to some
extent on the kind of meat that is to be served. A way that is favored
by some is to carve the meat before it is placed on the table and then
serve it according to the style of service used. However, the preferable
way is to place the platter containing the meat on the table, together
with the plates, in front of the person who is to do the carving
and serving.

The carver should use considerable care in cutting and serving the meat
so that the platter and the surrounding tablecloth will not become
unsightly. To make each portion as attractive as possible, it should be
cut off evenly and then placed on the plate with the best side up.
Furthermore, the carving should be done in an economical way in order
that whatever remains after the first serving may be served later in the
same meal, and what is not eaten at the first meal may be utilized to
advantage for another. To obtain the best results in carving, a good
carving knife should be secured and it should always be kept well
sharpened.

78. With the general directions clear in mind, the methods of carving
and serving particular kinds of meat may be taken up. Chops, of course,
require no carving. By means of a large fork, one should be placed on
each person's plate. Steaks and roasts, however, need proper cutting in
order that equally good pieces may be served to each person dining. To
carve a steak properly, cut it across from side to side so that each
piece will contain a portion of the tender part, as well as a share of
the tougher part. When cut, the pieces should be strips that are about
as wide as the steak is thick. It is often advisable to remove the bone
from some steaks before placing them on the table.

79. Roasts require somewhat more attention than steaks. Before they are
placed on the table, any cord used for tying should be cut and removed
and all skewers inserted to hold the meat in shape should be pulled out.
To carve a roast of any kind, run the fork into the meat deeply enough
to hold it firmly and then cut the meat into thin slices across the
grain. In the case of a roast leg that contains the bone, begin to carve
the meat from the large end, cutting each slice down to the bone and
then off so that the bone is left clean. Place round of beef and rolled
roasts on the platter so that the tissue side, and not the skin side, is
up, and then cut the slices off in a horizontal direction. To carve a
rib roast properly, cut it parallel with the ribs and separate the
pieces from the backbone.


SAUSAGES AND MEAT PREPARATIONS

80. In addition to the fresh, raw meats that the housewife can procure
for her family, there are on the market numerous varieties of raw,
smoked, cooked, and partly cooked meats, which are generally included
under the term SAUSAGES. These meats are usually highly seasoned, so
they keep better than do fresh meats. They should not be overlooked by
the housewife, for they help to simplify her labor and at the same time
serve to give variety to the family diet. Still, it should be remembered
that when meats are made ready for use before they are put on the
market, the cost of the labor involved in their manufacture is added to
the price charged for them. For this reason, the housewife must be
prepared to pay more for meats of this kind than she would pay if she
could prepare them at home. However, she need not be concerned regarding
their safety, for the government's inspection and regulations prevent
any adulteration of them.

81. Among the numerous varieties of these meats, many of them are
typical of certain localities, while others have a national or an
international reputation. They also vary in the kind of meat used to
make them. Some of them are made from beef, as _frankfurters_ and
certain kinds of _bologna_, while others are made from pork and include
the smoked and unsmoked sausages, _Liverwurst_ is made from the livers
of certain animals, and may be purchased loose or in skins.

Some of these sausages are used so often in certain combinations of
foods that they are usually thought of in connection with the foods that
it is customary for them to accompany. Frankfurters and sauerkraut, pork
sausage and mashed potatoes, liverwurst and fried corn-meal mush are
well-known combinations of this kind.

82. Closely allied to these sausages, although not one of them, is a
meat preparation much used in some localities and known as _scrapple_,
or _ponhasse_. This is prepared by cooking the head of pork, removing
the meat from the bones, and chopping it very fine. The pieces of meat
are then returned to the broth in which the head was cooked and enough
corn meal to thicken the liquid is stirred in. After the whole has
boiled sufficiently, it is turned into molds and allowed to harden. When
it is cold and hard, it can be cut into slices, which are sautéd in
hot fat.

83. Besides scrapple, numerous other meat preparations, such as _meat
loaves_ of various kinds and _pickled pig's feet_, can usually be
obtained in the market. While the thrifty housewife does not make a
habit of purchasing meats of this kind regularly, there are times when
they are a great convenience and also afford an opportunity to vary
the diet.

       *       *       *       *       *

PREPARATION OF FOODS BY DEEP-FAT FRYING

PRINCIPLES OF DEEP-FAT FRYING

84. Up to this point, all frying of foods has been done by sautéing
them; that is, frying them quickly in a small amount of fat. The other
method of frying, which involves cooking food quickly in deep fat at a
temperature of 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit, is used so frequently in
the preparation of many excellent meat dishes, particularly in the use
of left-overs, that specific directions for it are here given, together
with several recipes that afford practice in its use. No difficulty will
be experienced in applying this method to these recipes or to other
recipes if the underlying principles of deep-fat frying are thoroughly
understood and the proper utensils for this work are secured.

85. In the first place, it should be remembered that if foods prepared
in this way are properly done, they are not so indigestible as they are
oftentimes supposed to be, but that incorrect preparation makes for
indigestibility in the finished product. For instance, allowing the food
to soak up quantities of fat during the frying is neither economical nor
conducive to a digestible dish. To avoid such a condition, it is
necessary that the mixture to be fried be made of the proper materials
and be prepared in the right way. One of the chief requirements is that
the surface of the mixture be properly coated with a protein material,
such as egg or egg and milk, before it is put into the fat or that the
mixture contain the correct proportion of egg so that its outside
surface will accomplish the same purpose. The reason for this
requirement is that the protein material is quickly coagulated by the
hot fat and thus prevents the entrance of fat into the inside material
of the fried food.

Care must be taken also in the selection of the fat that is used for
deep-fat frying. This may be in the form of an oil or a solid fat and
may be either a vegetable or an animal fat. However, a vegetable fat is
usually preferred, as less smoke results from it and less flavor of the
fat remains in the food after it is cooked.

[Illustration: Fig. 24]

86. The utensils required for deep-fat frying are shown in Fig. 24. They
consist of a wire basket and a pan into which the basket will fit. As
will be observed, the pan in which the fat is put has an upright metal
piece on the side opposite the handle. Over this fits a piece of wire
with which the basket is equipped and which is attached to the side
opposite the handle of the basket. This arrangement makes it possible to
drain the fat from whatever food has been fried without having to hold
the basket over the pan.


APPLICATION OF DEEP-FAT FRYING

87. With the principles of deep-fat frying well in mind, the actual work
of frying foods by this method may be taken up. Numerous foods and
preparations may be subjected to this form of cookery, but attention is
given at this time to only croquettes and timbale cases. _Croquettes_
are small balls or patties usually made of some finely minced food and
fried until brown. _Timbale cases_ are shells in which various creamed
foods are served. As these two preparations are representative of the
various dishes that can be cooked by frying in deep fat, the directions
given for these, if carefully mastered, may be applied to many
other foods.

88. FRYING OF CROQUETTES.--After the mixture that is to be fried has
been prepared, and while the croquettes are being shaped, have the fat
heating in the deep pan, as in Fig. 24. Before the food is immersed,
test the temperature of the fat in the manner shown in Fig. 25, to make
sure that it is hot enough. To do this, put a 1/2-inch cube of bread in
the hot fat and keep it there for 40 seconds. If at the end of this time
it is a golden brown, it may be known that the fat is sufficiently hot
for any mixture. Be careful to regulate the heat so as to keep the fat
as near this temperature as possible, for it should be remembered that
each time a cold food is immersed in hot fat, the temperature is
lowered. Usually, a few minutes' frying is necessary to assure this
regulation of the temperature.

[Illustration: Fig. 25]

As soon as the correct temperature is reached, put several of the
croquettes in the basket and set the basket in the pan of hot fat so
that the croquettes are entirely covered. Fry until a good brown color
is secured. Then lift the basket out of the fat and allow it to drain
until all the fat possible has dripped from it. Finally remove the
croquettes from the basket and place them on any kind of paper that will
absorb the excessive fat. Serve at once or keep hot until ready
to serve.

89. VEAL CROQUETTES.--Veal that remains from a roast after it has been
served once can be utilized in no better way than in the making of
croquettes; or, if desired, veal may be cooked especially for this
purpose. When such croquettes are served with a sauce of any desirable
kind, such as white sauce or tomato sauce, or with left-over gravy, no
more appetizing dish can be found.

VEAL CROQUETTES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. cold ground veal
1 c. thick white sauce
2 Tb. chopped onion
1 Tb. chopped parsley
Salt and pepper
1 egg
Fine crumbs

Mix the ground veal with the white sauce, add the onion and parsley, and
salt and pepper to taste. Shape into oblong croquettes. Roll first in
the beaten egg, which, if necessary, may be increased by the addition of
a little milk, and then in the crumbs. Fry in deep fat until a golden
brown. Serve with or without sauce.

90. SWEETBREAD CROQUETTES.--An extremely palatable dish can be made by
frying in deep fat sweetbreads cut any desirable shape and size. These
are usually served with a vegetable, and often a sauce of some kind is
served over both.

To prepare the sweetbreads, parboil them according to the directions
given in Art. 17. Cut them into the kind of pieces desired, sprinkle the
pieces with salt and pepper, and dip them into beaten egg and then into
crumbs. Fry in deep fat and serve with a vegetable or a sauce or both.

91. RICE-AND-MEAT PATTIES.--Sometimes not enough meat remains after a
meal to make a tasty dish by itself. In such a case, it should be
combined with some other food, especially a starchy one, so as to extend
its flavor and produce a dish that approaches nearer a balanced ration
than meat alone does. A small amount of any kind of meat combined with
rice and the mixture then formed into patties, or croquettes, provides
both an appetizing and a nutritious dish.

RICE-AND-MEAT PATTIES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. finely chopped left-over meat
1 c. cold steamed rice
1/2 c. thick white sauce
1 Tb. chopped onion
1 tsp. celery salt
Salt and pepper
1 egg
Fine crumbs

Mix the meat and rice, stir into them the white sauce, onion, and celery
salt, and salt and pepper to taste. Shape into croquettes, or patties;
roll first in the egg and then in the crumbs. Fry in deep fat until
golden brown and serve with any desirable sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 26]

92. TIMBALE CASES.--Such foods as creamed sweetbreads, creamed
sweetbreads and mushrooms, and other delicate foods that are served in
small quantities can be made very attractive by serving them in timbale
cases. These are made out of a batter by means of a timbale iron and
fried in deep fat until brown. In serving them, place them either on a
small plate or on the dinner plate with the rest of the dinner. To make
them especially attractive, dip the edge into egg white and then into
very finely chopped parsley. Fig. 26 shows creamed sweetbreads served in
a timbale case.

[Illustration: FIG. 27]

93. To prepare timbale cases, a _timbale iron_, such as is shown in Fig.
27, is required. Such an iron consists of a fluted piece of metal that
is either solid or hollow and that has attached to it a handle long
enough to keep the hand sufficiently far away from the hot fat.

The batter required for timbale cases and the directions for combining
them are as follows:

TIMBALE-CASE BATTER
(Sufficient to Make Twenty)

1 egg
1/2 c. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
1 tsp. sugar
3/4 c. flour

Beat the egg with a fork just enough to break it up thoroughly. Add the
milk, salt, and sugar. Stir in the flour with as little beating as
possible. After preparing this mixture, allow it to stand for 1/2 hour,
so that any air it contains in the form of bubbles may escape and thus
prevent the formation of holes and bubbles in the finished
timbale cases.

[Illustration: Fig. 28]

When about to use the batter, pour it into a cup or some other small
utensil that is just large enough to admit the iron easily. The iron
must be nearly covered with batter, but a large amount of it will not be
needed if a small utensil is used. Place the iron in the hot fat, as
shown in Fig. 27, until it is hot, or for about 4 minutes. Then let it
drip and place it in the batter, as in Fig. 28, being careful not to
permit the batter to come quite to the top of the iron, and remove it at
once. Place it immediately into the hot fat, as in Fig. 29, allowing the
fat to come higher on the iron than the batter does. This precaution
will prevent the formation of a ridge of bubbles around the top of the
timbale case. Fry in the deep fat until the case is nicely browned, as
shown in Fig. 26. Remove the iron from the fat, and allow it to drip.
Then carefully remove the timbale case from the iron with a fork and
place it on paper that will absorb the fat.

[Illustration: Fig. 29]

If your timbales are soft instead of crisp, you will know that the
mixture is too thick and should be diluted. Too hot or too cold an iron
will prevent the mixture from sticking to it.


MEAT (PART 2)

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) (_a_) What is veal? (_b_) From animals of what age is the best veal
obtained?

(2) Compare veal and beef as to characteristics.

(3) What cuts of veal are most suitable for: (_a_) roasts? (_b_)
cutlets? (_c_) soup and stews? (_d_) chops?

(4) (_a_) What organs of veal are used for foods? (_b_) What are
sweetbreads?

(5) (_a_) Why is veal more indigestible than beef? (_b_) What important
point must be remembered concerning the cooking of veal?

(6) (_a_) What substance in veal is utilized in the preparation of
jellied veal? (_b_) Explain how this dish is prepared.

(7) (_a_) At what age is sheep sold as lamb? (_b_) How do lamb and
mutton differ as to food substances?

(8) Compare the flesh of lamb and mutton as to appearance.

(9) As they apply to lamb and mutton, explain the terms: (_a_) rack;
(_b_) saddle.

(10) Explain why some cuts of lamb and mutton are tough and others
tender.

(11) What is: (_a_) a crown roast of lamb? (_b_) a French chop?

(12) (_a_) Describe pork of the best kind. (_b_) Why is the food value
of pork higher than that of other meats?

(13) (_a_) Name the cuts of pork. (_b_) What is meant by leaf lard?

(14) What important points must be taken into consideration in the
cooking of pork?

(15) (_a_) Name some of the accompaniments that are usually served with
pork. (_b_) What is the purpose of these accompaniments?

(16) (_a_) For what purpose is salt pork generally used? (_b_) What is
bacon? (_c_) To what uses is bacon put?

(17) (_a_) Give the general directions for the carving and serving of
meat. (_b_) Explain how to carve and serve a steak.

(18) (_a_) What is meant by deep-fat frying? (_b_) Why must a food that
is to be fried in deep fat contain or be coated with a protein material?

(19) (_a_) What utensils are necessary for deep-fat frying? (_b_)
Explain the procedure in frying croquettes in deep fat.

(20) (_a_) For what purpose are timbale cases used? (_b_) Explain how to
make a batter for timbale cases.


ADDITIONAL WORK

Select a cut of beef that you consider most desirable from an economical
standpoint. Buy a quantity that may be used to the greatest advantage
for your family. Prepare it in any way you desire.

State the number of pounds purchased, the price of the meat, the number
of meals in which it was served, and the number of persons (tell how
many adults and how many children) served at each meal. Estimate the
cost of each portion by dividing the cost of the whole by the number of
persons served.

Make up an original dish in which left-over meat is used and submit the
recipe to us.

       *       *       *       *       *




POULTRY

       *       *       *       *       *

POULTRY AS A FOOD

1. POULTRY is the term used to designate birds that have been
domesticated, or brought under the control of man, for two purposes,
namely, the eggs they produce and the flesh food they supply. All the
common species of domestic fowls--chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys,
guinea fowls, and pigeons--are known as poultry. However, none of these
species is included under this term unless it is raised for at least one
of the two purposes mentioned. As the term is to be understood in this
Section, poultry includes all domestic fowls that are killed in order
that their flesh may be cooked and used as food for human beings. Of
course, many wild birds are killed for the flesh food they furnish, but
they are classed under the term _game_.

2. Poultry is probably never a necessity in the ordinary dietary, and
when prices are high it is a decided luxury. Still it does aid
materially in relieving the monotony of the usual protein foods, and it
supplies that "something out of the ordinary" for special occasions.
Then, too, it is often valuable in the diet of an invalid or some person
with a poor appetite. Poultry is, of course, used more in some homes
than in others; yet there is scarcely a home in which it is not served
some time or another. A knowledge of this food and its preparation and
serving will therefore prove to be a valuable asset to any housewife.

3. To arrive at a knowledge of the use of poultry as a food, the
housewife must necessarily become familiar with its selection and
purchase. Then she must give attention to both its preparation for
cooking and its actual cooking, and, finally, to its serving. In all
these matters she will do well to adhere to the practice of economy,
for, at best, poultry is usually an expensive food. Before entering into
these matters in detail, however, it will be well to look into them in a
general way.

4. In the selection of poultry, the housewife should realize that
poultry breeders have so developed certain breeds, even of the same
species, that they are better for table use than others. The flesh of
any breed of poultry may be improved by feeding the birds good food and
giving them proper care; and it is by applying these principles that the
breeders are enabled to better the quality of this food. Other things
also influence the quality of poultry flesh as food, as, for example,
the way in which the poultry is prepared for market and the care it
receives in transportation and storage. Unless these are as they should
be, they have a detrimental effect on poultry, because such food is
decidedly perishable.

It is possible to exercise economy in the purchase of poultry, but
before the housewife can do this she must be able to judge the age of
each kind she may desire. On the age depends to a great extent the
method of cookery to be followed in preparing the poultry for the table.
Likewise, she must know the marks of cold-storage poultry, as well as
those of poultry that is freshly killed; and she must be familiar with
the first marks of deterioration, or decay, that result from storing the
food too long or improperly.

Economy may also be practiced in preparing poultry for cooking. To bring
this about, however, the housewife should realize that the best method
of preparing any kind of poultry for cooking is always the most
economical. It means, too, that she should understand thoroughly the
methods of drawing and cutting, so that she may either do this work
herself or direct it.

The way in which poultry is cooked has a bearing on the cost of this
food, too. For example, a young, tender bird prepared by a wrong method
not only is a good dish spoiled, but is a waste of expensive material.
Likewise, an older bird, which has more flavor but tougher tissues, is
almost impossible as food if it is not properly prepared. Both kinds
make appetizing dishes and do not result in waste if correct methods of
cooking are followed in their preparation.

Even the way in which poultry is served has a bearing on the cost of
this food. For this reason, it is necessary to know how to carve, as
well as how to utilize any of this food that may be left over, if the
housewife is to get the most out of her investment.

       *       *       *       *       *

SELECTION OF POULTRY

GENERAL INFORMATION

5. The selection of any kind of poultry to be used as food is a matter
that should not be left to the butcher. Rather, it should be done by
some one who understands the purpose for which the poultry is to be
used, and, in the home, this is a duty that usually falls to the
housewife. There are a number of general facts about poultry, and a
knowledge of them will assist the housewife greatly in performing
her tasks.

6. CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY.--Poultry breeders and dealers divide the
domestic fowls into three classes. In the first class are included those
which have combs, such as chickens, turkeys, and guinea fowls. Quails
and pheasants belong to this class also, but they are very seldom
domesticated. The birds in this class are distinguished by two kinds of
tissue--light meat on the breast and dark meat on the other parts of the
body. In the second class are included those fowls which swim, such as
ducks and geese. These are characterized by web feet and long thick
bills, and their meat is more nearly the same color over the entire
body. The third class is comprised of birds that belong to the family of
doves. Pigeons, which are called _squabs_ when used as food, are the
only domesticated birds of this class. They stand between the other two
classes with respect to their flesh, which has some difference in color
between the breast and other muscles, but not so much as chicken and
other fowls of the first class.

7. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING AND CARE ON QUALITY.--To some extent, the breed
affects the quality of poultry as food; still this is a far less
important matter than a number of things that the purchaser is better
able to judge. Among the factors that greatly influence the quality are
the feeding and care that the birds receive up to the time of slaughter.
These affect not only the flavor and the tenderness of the tissue, as
well as the quantity of tissue in proportion to bone, but also the
healthfulness of the birds themselves. To keep the birds in good health
and to build up sufficient flesh to make them plump, with as much meat
as possible on the bones and a fair amount of fat as well, the food they
get must be clean and of the right kind. Likewise, the housing
conditions must be such that the birds are kept dry and sufficiently
warm. The living space, also, must be adequate for the number that are
raised. Domestic fowls are not discriminating as to their food, and when
they are forced to live in dirt and filth they will eat more or less of
it and thus injure the quality of their flesh. Poultry that comes into
the market looking drawn and thin, with blue-looking flesh and no fat,
shows evidence of having had poor living conditions and inadequate
feeding. Such poultry will be found to have a less satisfactory flavor
than that which has received proper care.

8. EFFECT OF SEX ON QUALITY.--When birds of any kind are young, sex has
very little to do with the quality of the flesh. But as they grow older
the flesh of males develops a stronger flavor than that of females of
the same age and also becomes tougher. However, when birds, with the
exception of mature ones, are dressed, it would take an expert to
determine the sex. The mature male is less plump than the female, and it
is more likely to be scrawny. Likewise, its spurs are larger and its
bones are large in proportion to the amount of flesh on them.

Very often the reproductive organs of young males are removed, and the
birds are then called _capons_. As the capon grows to maturity, it
develops more of the qualities of the hen. Its body becomes plump
instead of angular, the quality of its flesh is much better than that of
the cock, and the quantity of flesh in proportion to bone is much
greater. In fact, the weight of a capon's edible flesh is much greater
than that of either a hen or a cock. In the market, a dressed capon can
usually be told by the long tail and wing feathers that are left on, as
well as by a ring of feathers around the neck. Female birds that are
spayed are called _poulards_. Spaying, or removing the reproductive
organs, of female birds, however, makes so little improvement that it is
seldom done.

9. PREPARATION OF POULTRY FOR MARKET.--The manner in which poultry is
prepared for market has a great bearing on its quality as food. In some
cases, the preparation falls to the producer, and often, when birds are
raised in quantities, they are sold alive and dressed by the butcher.
However, poultry that is to be shipped long distances and in large
quantities or stored for long periods of time is usually prepared at a
slaughtering place. This process of slaughtering and shipping requires
great care, for if attention is not given to details, the poultry will
be in a state of deterioration when it reaches the consumer and
therefore unfit for food.

In order to avoid the deterioration of poultry that is slaughtered some
distance from the place of its consumption, each bird is well fed up to
within 24 hours before it is killed. Then it is starved so that its
alimentary tract will be as empty as possible at the time of killing.
Such birds are killed by cutting the large blood vessel running up to
the head. When properly done, this method of killing allows almost all
the blood to be drained from the body and the keeping qualities are much
improved. At practically the same time, the brain is pierced by the
knife thrust, and as soon as the bleeding commences the fowl becomes
paralyzed. As the tissues relax, the feathers may be pulled easily from
the skin without immersing the bird in hot water. This method of
plucking, known as _dry plucking_, is preferable when the skin must be
kept intact and the poultry kept for any length of time. The head and
feet are left on and the entrails are not removed. The poultry is then
chilled to the freezing point, but not below it, after which the birds
are packed ten in a box and shipped to the market in refrigerator cars
or placed in cold storage. Unless the poultry is to be cooked
immediately after slaughter, such measures are absolutely necessary, as
its flesh is perishable and will not remain in good condition for a long
period of time.

10. COLD-STORAGE POULTRY.--Poultry that has been properly raised,
killed, transported, and stored is very likely to come into the market
in such condition that it cannot be readily distinguished from freshly
killed birds. When exposed to warmer temperatures, however, storage
poultry spoils much more quickly than does fresh poultry. For this
reason, if there is any evidence that poultry has been in storage, it
should be cooked as soon as possible after purchase.

There are really two kinds of cold-storage poultry: that which is kept
at a temperature just above freezing and delivered within a few weeks
after slaughtering, and that which is frozen and kept in storage a much
longer time. When properly cared for, either one is preferable to
freshly killed poultry that is of poor quality or has had a chance to
spoil. Poultry that has been frozen must be thawed carefully. It should
be first placed in a refrigerator and allowed to thaw to that
temperature before it is placed in a warmer one. It should never be
thawed by putting it into warm water. Thawing it in this way really
helps it to decompose.

A sure indication of cold-storage poultry is the pinched look it
possesses, a condition brought about by packing the birds tightly
against one another. Storage poultry usually has the head and feet left
on and its entrails are not removed. Indeed, it has been determined by
experiment that poultry will keep better if these precautions are
observed. The removal of the entrails seems to affect the internal
cavity of the bird so that it does not keep well, and as a matter of
safety it should be cooked quickly after this has been done in the home.


SELECTION OF CHICKEN

11. To be able to select chicken properly, the housewife must be
familiar with the terms that are applied to chickens to designate their
age or the cookery process for which they are most suitable. _Chicken_
is a general name for all varieties of this kind of poultry, but in its
specific use it means a common domestic fowl that is less than 1 year
old. _Fowl_ is also a general term; but in its restricted use in cookery
it refers to the full-grown domestic hen or cock over 1 year of age, as
distinguished from the chicken or pullet. A _broiler_ is chicken from 2
to 4 months old which, because of its tenderness, is suitable for
broiling. A _frying chicken_ is at least 6 months old, and a _roasting
chicken_ is between 6 months and 1 year old. With these terms
understood, it can readily be seen that if fried chicken is desired a
2-year-old fowl would not be a wise purchase.

The quality of the bird is the next consideration in the selection of
chicken. A number of things have a bearing on the quality. Among these,
as has already been pointed out, are the feeding and care that the bird
has received during its growth, the way in which it has been prepared
for market, and so on. All of these things may be determined by careful
observation before making a purchase. However, if the bird is drawn, and
especially if the head and feet are removed, there is less chance to
determine these things accurately.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

12. GENERAL MARKS OF GOOD QUALITY.--A chicken older than a broiler that
has been plucked should not be scrawny nor drawn looking like that shown
in Fig. 1, nor should the flesh have a blue tinge that shows through the
skin. Rather, it should be plump and well rounded like the one shown in
Fig. 2. There should be a sufficient amount of fat to give a rich,
yellow color. It should be plucked clean, and the skin should be clear
and of an even color over the entire bird. Tender, easily broken skin
indicates a young bird; tougher skin indicates an older one. The skin
should be whole and unbroken; likewise, when pressed with the fingers,
it should be neither flabby nor stiff, but pliable.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

13. The increase of age in a chicken is to some extent an advantage,
because with age there is an increase in flavor. Thus, a year-old
chicken will have more flavor than a broiler. However, after more than
a year, the flavor increases to such an extent that it becomes strong
and disagreeable. With the advance of age there is also a loss of
tenderness in the flesh, and this after 1-1/2 or 2 years becomes so
extreme as to render the bird almost unfit for use. As the age of a
chicken increases, the proportion of flesh to bone also increases up to
the complete maturity of the bird. Hence, one large bird is a more
economical purchase than two small ones that equal its weight, because
the proportion of bone to flesh is less in the large bird than in the
small ones.

14. DETERMINING THE AGE OF CHICKEN.--An excellent way in which to
determine the age of a chicken that has been dressed consists in feeling
of the breast bone at the point where it protrudes below the neck. In a
very young chicken, a broiler, for instance, the point of this bone will
feel like cartilage, which is firm, elastic tissue, and may be very
easily bent. If the bird is about a year old, the bone will be brittle,
and in a very old one it will be hard and will not bend.

15. If the head has been left on, the condition of the beak is a means
of determining age. In a young chicken, it will be smooth and unmarred;
in an old one, it will be rough and probably darker in color. If the
feet have been left on, they too will serve to indicate the age. The
feet of a young chicken are smooth and soft; whereas, those of an old
bird are rough, hard, and scaly. The claws of a young one are short and
sharp; but as the bird grows older they grow stronger and become blunt
and marred with use. The spur, which is a projection just above the foot
on the back of each leg, is small in the young chicken, and increases in
size as the age increases. However, the spurs are more pronounced in
males than in females.

16. Another way of telling the age of dressed chicken is to observe the
skin. After plucking, young birds usually have some pin feathers left in
the skin. _Pin feathers_ are small unformed feathers that do not pull
out with the larger ones. Older birds are usually free from pin
feathers, but have occasional long hairs remaining in the skin after the
feathers have been plucked. These do not pull out readily and must be
singed off when the chicken is being prepared for cooking.

17. DETERMINING THE FRESHNESS OF CHICKEN.--There are a number of points
that indicate whether or not a chicken is fresh. In a freshly killed
chicken, the feet will be soft and pliable and moist to the touch; also,
the head will be unshrunken and the eyes full and bright. The flesh of
such a chicken will give a little when pressed, but no part of the flesh
should be softer than another. As actual decomposition sets in, the skin
begins to discolor. The first marks of discoloration occur underneath
the legs and wings, at the points where they are attached to the body.
Any dark or greenish color indicates decomposition, as does also any
slimy feeling of the skin. The odor given off by the chicken is also an
indication of freshness. Any offensive odor, of course, means that the
flesh has become unfit for food.

18. LIVE CHICKENS.--Occasionally chickens are brought to the market and
sold alive. This means, of course, that the birds are subjected to a
certain amount of fright and needless cruelty and that the work of
slaughtering falls to the purchaser. The cost, however, is decreased a
few cents on the pound. Such birds must be chosen first of all by weight
and then by the marks that indicate age, which have already been given.


SELECTION OF POULTRY OTHER THAN CHICKEN

19. The determination of quality, especially freshness, is much the same
for other kinds of poultry as it is for chicken. In fact, the same
points apply in most cases, but each kind seems to have a few
distinguishing features, which are here pointed out.

20. SELECTION OF TURKEYS.--Turkeys rank next to chickens in popularity
as food. They are native to America and are perhaps better known here
than in foreign countries. Turkey is a much more seasonal food than
chicken, it being best in the fall. Cold-storage turkey that has been
killed at that time, provided it is properly stored and cared for, is
better than fresh turkey marketed out of season.

21. The age of a turkey can be fairly accurately told by the appearance
of its feet. Very young turkeys have black feet, and as they mature the
feet gradually grow pink, so that at more than 1 year old the feet will
be found to be pink. However, as the bird grows still older, the color
again changes, and a 3-year-old turkey will have dull-gray or blackish
looking feet. The legs, too, serve to indicate the age of turkeys. Those
of a young turkey are smooth, but as the birds grow older they gradually
become rough and scaly. A young turkey will have spurs that are only
slightly developed, whereas an old turkey will have long, sharp ones.

22. Turkeys are seldom marketed when they are very young. But in spite
of the fact that this is occasionally done, the mature birds are more
generally marketed. Turkeys often reach a large size, weighing as much
as 20 to 25 pounds. A mature turkey has proportionately a larger amount
of flesh and a smaller amount of bone than chicken; hence, even at a
higher price per pound, turkey is fully as economical as chicken.

23. SELECTION OF DUCKS.--Ducks probably come next to turkeys in
popularity for table use. Young ducks are sold in the market during the
summer and are called _spring duck_. The mature ducks may be purchased
at any time during the year, but they are best in the winter months.

The flexibility of the windpipe is an excellent test for the age of
ducks. In the young bird, the windpipe may be easily moved; whereas, in
the old one, it is stationary and quite hard. The meat of ducks is dark
over the entire bird, and the greatest amount is found on the breast.
Its flavor is quite typical, and differs very much from turkey and
chicken. However, there is a comparatively small amount of meat even on
a good-sized duck, and it does not carve to very good advantage; in
fact, more persons can be served from a chicken or a turkey of the same
weight. Young ducks are rather difficult to clean, as a layer of fine
down, which is not easily removed, covers the skin.

24. SELECTION OF GEESE.--Geese are much more commonly used for food in
foreign countries than in America. Their age may be told in the same way
as that of ducks, namely, by feeling of the windpipe. The flesh is dark
throughout and rather strongly flavored. The fat is used quite
extensively for cooking purposes, and even as a butter substitute in
some countries. Because of this fact, geese are generally fattened
before they are slaughtered, and often half the weight of the bird is
fat. The livers of fattened geese reach enormous proportions and are
considered a delicacy. They are used for _pâté de fois gras_. Usually,
this is put up in jars and brings a very high price.

25. SELECTION OF PIGEONS.--Pigeons are raised primarily for their use
as _squabs_. These are young birds about 4 weeks old, and their meat is
tender and agreeable to the taste. The meat of the mature pigeon becomes
quite tough and unpalatable. The breast is the only part of the bird
that has meat on it in any quantity, and this meat is slightly lighter
in color than that which comes from the remainder of the body. Midsummer
is the best season for squabs, but they can be purchased at other times
of the year. The cost of squabs is too high to allow them to be used
extensively as a food in the ordinary household.


TABLE I

GUIDE TO THE SELECTION OF POULTRY

Market Name          Weight          Age          Season
                     Pounds

Squab broiler      3/4   to 1-1/4  6 to 8 wk.     April to July
Broiler            1-1/2 to 2      2 to 4 mo.     May to Sept.
Frying chicken     2-1/2 to 3      6 mo.          June to Oct.
Roasting chicken   3     to 6      6 mo. to 1 yr. All Year
Fowl               4     to 5      over 1 yr.     All Year
Capon              6     to 10     6 to 8 wk.     May to Sept.
Turkey broiler     1-1/2 to 4      2 to 4 mo.     June to Sept.
Roasting turkey    8     to 25     6 mo. to 3 yr. Oct. to Jan.
Spring Duck        1-1/2 to 2-1/2  2 to 6 mo.     May to Dec.
Roasting Duck      4     to 8      6 mo. to 1 yr. Best in winter
Green goose        1-1/2 to 2-1/2  2 to 6 mo.     May to Dec.
Roasting goose     4     to 8      6 mo. to 1 yr. Oct. to Mar.
Squab              1/2   to 3/4    4 wk.          June to Sept.
Guinea hen broiler 1     to 2      2 to 4 mo.     Aug. to Nov.
Guinea fowl        3     to 5      6 mo. to 1 yr. Oct. to Mar.


26. SELECTION OF GUINEA FOWLS.--Guinea fowls are coming into common use
as food. The young birds are preferable to the older ones. They are
ready for the market in early autumn, while the old birds may be
procured at any time. The breast meat of guinea fowls is almost as light
as that of chicken, but all the meat of this bird has a gamy taste,
which is absent in the chicken. If this particular flavor is much
desired, it may be developed to even a greater degree by allowing the
bird to hang after killing until the meat begins to "turn," that is,
become "high." Such meat, however, is not usually desirable in the
ordinary menu.

27. SELECTION OF PHEASANT, PARTRIDGE, AND QUAIL.--Pheasant, partridge,
and quail are usually considered game birds, but certain varieties are
being extensively domesticated and bred for market. Such birds are small
and are used more in the nature of a delicacy than as a common
article of food.

28. TABLE OF POULTRY AND GAME.--In Table I are given the market names of
the various kinds of poultry and game birds, as well as the
corresponding age, the weight, and the season of the year when they are
most desirable. This table will serve as a guide in selecting poultry
that is to be used as food.


COMPOSITION OF POULTRY

29. The composition of poultry is very similar to that of meats. In
fact, poultry is composed of protein, fat, water, mineral salts, and
extractives that do not differ materially from those found in meats. The
protein, which usually varies from 15 to 20 per cent., is a much more
constant factor than the fat, which varies from 8 to 40 per cent. This
variation, of course, makes the total food value high in some kinds of
poultry and low in others. For instance, in a young broiler that has not
been fattened, the food value is extremely low; whereas, in a mature
well-fattened bird, such as a goose, which increases very markedly in
fatty tissue after reaching maturity, it is extremely high. A factor
that detracts considerably from the edible portion of poultry is the
waste material, or refuse. This consists of the bones, cartilage, head,
feet, and entrails, or inedible internal organs. The greater the
proportion of such waste material, the more the total nutritive value of
the flesh is reduced. It is claimed that birds that have light-colored
flesh do not become so fat as those which have dark flesh. This, of
course, makes their nutritive value less, because the fat of poultry is
what serves to supply a large part of the nutrition. There is no
particular difference, as is commonly supposed, between the red and
white meat of poultry. The difference in color is due to a difference in
the blood supply, but this does not affect the composition to
any extent.

       *       *       *       *       *

PREPARATION OF POULTRY FOR COOKING

PREPARATION OF CHICKEN

30. As has been implied, poultry must be properly prepared before it is
ready for cooking; likewise, the method of cookery determines how it
must be prepared. For example, if it is to be roasted, it must be drawn;
if it is to be stewed, it must be drawn and cut into suitable pieces;
and so on. The various steps that must be taken to make poultry suitable
for cooking are therefore considered here in detail.

31. DRESSING A CHICKEN.--Although, as has been shown, the housewife does
not have to dress the chicken that she is to cook--that is, kill and
pluck it--there may be times when she will be called on to perform this
task or at least direct it. A common way of killing chicken in the home
is simply to grasp it firmly by the legs, lay it on a block, and then
chop the head off with a sharp hatchet or a cleaver. If this plan is
followed, the beheaded chicken must be held firmly until the blood has
drained away and the reflex action that sets in has ceased. Otherwise,
there is danger of becoming splashed with blood.

32. After a chicken has been killed, the first step in its preparation,
no matter how it is to be cooked, consists in removing the feathers, or
_plucking_ it, as this operation is called. Plucking can be done dry by
simply pulling out the feathers. However, a bird can be plucked more
readily if it is first immersed in water at the boiling point for a few
minutes. Such water has a tendency to loosen the feathers so that they
can be pulled from the skin easily. Unless the chicken is to be used at
once, though, dry plucking is preferable to the other method. Care
should be taken not to tear or mar the skin in plucking, and the
operation is best performed by pulling out the feathers a few at a time,
with a quick jerk. In a young chicken, small feathers, commonly called
pin feathers, are apt to remain in the skin after plucking. These may be
pulled out by pinching each with the point of a knife pressed against
the thumb and then giving a quick jerk.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

33. Whether live poultry is dressed by a local butcher or in the home,
the length of time it should be kept after killing demands attention.
Such poultry should either be cooked before rigor mortis, or the
stiffening of the muscles, has had time to begin, or be allowed to
remain in a cool place long enough for this to pass off and the muscles
to become tender again. Naturally, if this softening, or ripening,
process, as it is sometimes called, goes on too long, decomposition will
set in, with the usual harmful effects if the meat is used as food.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

34. SINGEING A CHICKEN.--On all chickens except very young ones, whether
they are home dressed or not, hairs will be found on the skin; and, as
has been mentioned, the older the bird the more hair will it have. The
next step in preparing a chicken for cooking, therefore, is to singe it,
or burn off these hairs. However, before singeing, provided the head has
not been removed, cut it off just where the neck begins, using a kitchen
cleaver or a butcher knife, as in Fig. 3. To singe a dressed chicken,
grasp it by the head or the neck and the feet and then revolve it over a
gas flame, as shown in Fig. 4, or a burning piece of paper for a few
seconds or just long enough to burn off the hairs without scorching the
skin. After singeing, wash the skin thoroughly with a cloth and warm
water, as shown in Fig. 5. Then it will be ready for drawing and
cutting up.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

35. DRAWING A CHICKEN.--By drawing a chicken is meant the taking out of
the entrails and removing all parts that are not edible. Although this
work will be done by some butchers, the better plan is to do it at home,
for, as has been stated, chicken or any other poultry must be cooked
very soon after the entrails are removed. Chicken that is to be roasted
is always prepared in this way, as the cavity that remains may be filled
with stuffing. Drawing is also necessary when chicken is to be cooked in
any other way, as by stewing or frying, but in addition it must be cut
up. The procedure in drawing a chicken is simple, but some practice is
required before deftness will result.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

36. In order to draw a chicken, carefully cut a lengthwise slit through
the skin on the neck, and slip the fingers down around the _crop_, which
is a small sack that holds the food eaten by the chicken. Then pull
the crop out, and with it the windpipe, as in Fig. 6, taking pains not
to tear the skin nor to break the crop.

Next, remove the tendons, or thick white cords, from the legs, so as to
improve the meat. These may be easily removed, especially from a chicken
that is freshly killed; that is, one in which the flesh is still moist.
Simply cut through the skin, just above the foot, as in Fig. 7, being
careful not to cut the tendons that lie just beneath the skin; then slip
a skewer or some other small, dull implement, as a fork, under the
tendons, pull down toward the foot until they loosen at the second
joint, and pull them out. This operation is clearly shown in Fig. 8.
With the tendons removed, the feet may be cut off. To do this, cut
through the skin where the two bones join, as shown in Fig. 9. As the
joint separates, cut through the remaining tendons and skin on the back
of the legs.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

37. Proceed, next, to cut a crosswise slit through the skin between the
legs at a point above the vent, as in Fig. 10, so that the entrails may
be removed. This slit should be just large enough to admit the hand and
no larger. Insert the fingers of one hand in this slit and gently move
them around the mass of the internal organs, keeping them close to the
framework of the bird. This will loosen the entrails at the points where
they are attached to the body. Then, inserting the hand, slip the
fingers around the mass at the top, near the neck, and with one pull
remove the entire internal contents, as Fig. 11 shows. The lungs, or
lights, as they are sometimes called, do not come out with this mass.
They will be found covered with a membrane and tightly fastened inside
the breast bone, and must be removed by pulling them out with the tips
of the fingers. After the entrails are removed, pour clean cold water
into the cavity, rinse it well several times, and pour the water out.

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

38. Among the contents drawn from the chicken will be found the heart,
the liver, and the gizzard. These are called the _giblets_. They are the
only edible internal organs, and must be separated from the rest. To do
this, squeeze the blood from the heart, and then cut the large vessels
off close to the top of it. Then cut the liver away. In handling this
part of the giblets extreme care must be taken, for tightly attached to
it, as Fig. 12 shows, is the _gall bladder_, which is a tiny sack filled
with green fluid, called bile. If this sack breaks, anything that its
contents touches will become very bitter and therefore unfit to eat. The
gall bag should be cut out of the liver above the place where it is
attached, so as to be certain that it does not break nor lose any of the
bile. Next, remove the gizzard, which consists of a fleshy part
surrounding a sack containing partly digested food eaten by the
chicken. First trim off any surplus fat, and carefully cut through the
fleshy part just to the surface of the inside sack. Then pull the
outside fleshy part away from the sack without breaking it, as in Fig.
13, an operation that can be done if the work is performed carefully.
After removing the giblets and preparing them as explained, wash them
well, so that they may be used with the rest of the chicken. As a final
step, cut out the _oil sack_, which lies just above the tail, proceeding
in the manner illustrated in Fig. 14.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

[Illustration: Fig. 19]

[Illustration: Fig. 20]

[Illustration: Fig. 21]

[Illustration: Fig. 22]

39. CUTTING UP A CHICKEN.--When chicken that has been drawn is to be
fried, stewed, fricasseed, or cooked in some similar way, it must be cut
into suitable pieces. In order to do this properly, it is necessary to
learn to locate the joints and to be able to cut squarely between the
two bones where they are attached to each other. To sever the legs from
the body of the chicken, first cut through the skin underneath each leg
where it is attached to the body, as in Fig. 15, bend the leg back far
enough to break the joint, and then cut through it, severing the entire
leg in one piece. When the legs are cut off, cut each one apart at the
joint between the thigh and the lower part, as in Fig. 16, making two
pieces. To sever the wings from the body, cut through the skin where the
wing is attached, as in Fig. 17, and bend it back until the joint
breaks. Then cut it off where the ends of the bones are attached to the
joint. When both legs and both wings are removed, proceed to cut the
body apart. As shown in Fig. 18, place the chicken, neck down, on a
table, and cut down through the ribs parallel with the breast and the
back, until the knife strikes a hard bone that it cannot cut. Then
firmly grasp the breast with one hand and the back with the other and
break the joints that attach these parts by pulling the back and the
breast away from each other, as in Fig. 19. Cut through the joints, as
in Fig. 20, so that the back, ribs, and neck will be in one piece and
the breast in another. [Illustration: Fig. 23] If desired, the breast
may be divided into two pieces by cutting it in the manner shown in Fig.
21; also, as the back will break at the end of the ribs, it may be cut
into two pieces there. Finally, cut the neck from the top piece of the
back, as in Fig. 22.

The pieces of chicken thus procured may be rinsed clean with cold
water, but they should never be allowed to stand in water, because this
will draw out some of the extractives, or flavoring material, soluble
albumin, and mineral salts.

40. PREPARING CHICKEN FEET.--Many persons consider that chicken feet are
not worth while for food. This, however, is a mistaken idea, for they
will add to the flavor of soup stock or they may be cooked with the
giblets to make stock for gravy. Chicken feet do not contain much meat,
but what little there is has an excellent flavor and should be removed
for use when creamed chicken or any dish made with left-over chicken is
to be cooked.

To prepare chicken feet for use as food, scrub the feet well and pour
boiling water over them. After a minute or two, remove them from the
water and rub them with a clean cloth to peel off the scaly skin, as
shown in Fig. 23. Finally remove the nails by bending them back.

41. UTILIZING THE WING TIPS.--The last joint, or tip, of chicken wings
has no value as food, but, like the feet, it will help to add flavor to
any stock that is made. This small piece of wing may be removed and then
cooked with the feet and giblets.


PREPARATION OF POULTRY OTHER THAN CHICKEN

42. PREPARATION OF TURKEY.--The preparation of a plucked turkey for
cooking is almost identically the same as that of a plucked chicken.
Begin the preparation by singeing it; that is, hold it over a flame and
turn it so that all the hairs on the skin will be burned off. Then look
the skin over carefully, remove any pin feathers that may not have been
removed in plucking, and wash it thoroughly. Next, cut off the head,
leaving as much of the neck as possible. Draw the tendons from the legs
as in preparing chicken; the ease with which this can be done will
depend greatly on the length of time the turkey has been killed. Then
cut off the legs at the first joint above the foot.

Having prepared the external part of the turkey, proceed to draw it.
First, remove the crop by cutting a slit lengthwise in the neck over the
crop, catching it with the fingers, and pulling it out. Next, cut a slit
between the legs, below the breast bone, and draw out the internal
organs. Clean and retain the giblets. Remove the lungs, wash out the
cavity in the turkey, and cut off the oil bag on the back, just
above the tail.

Turkey prepared in this way is ready to stuff and roast. It is never cut
into pieces in the ordinary household until it has been cooked and is
ready to serve. Directions for carving are therefore given later.

43. PREPARATION OF DUCK AND GOOSE.--The preparation of duck and goose
for cooking does not differ materially from that of turkey or chicken.
Like turkey, duck or goose is generally roasted and not cut up until it
is ready to serve. It will be well to note that young ducks are covered
with small feathers, or down, which is very difficult to remove.
However, the down may be removed by pulling it out with a small knife
pressed against the thumb. When the down is removed, proceed with the
preparation. Singe, wash, remove the head and feet, draw, wash the
inside of the bird, and remove the oil sack. Goose may be prepared for
cooking in the same way.

44. PREPARATION OF SMALL BIRDS.--Squabs, partridge, pheasant, and other
small birds are usually cooked by broiling. To prepare such a bird for
cooking, singe, remove any small feathers that may remain, wash, remove
the head and feet, and draw, following the directions given for drawing
chicken. When it is thus cleaned, lay the bird open. To do this, begin
at the neck and cut down the back along the spine. If desired, however,
the bird may be cut down the back before drawing and the entrails
removed through the cut down the back. Finally, wash the inside and wipe
it dry, when the bird will be ready for broiling.

       *       *       *       *       *

COOKING OF POULTRY

COOKERY METHODS

45. With poultry, as in the case of meats of any kind, it is the
composition that determines the method of cookery; and, as the structure
and composition of the tissue of poultry do not differ materially from
those of meats, the application of the various cooking methods is
practically the same. Young and tender birds that have comparatively
little flesh, such as young chickens, squabs, and guinea fowl, are
usually prepared by such rapid methods as frying and broiling.
Medium-sized poultry, including chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, ducks,
and geese, require more cooking, and this, of course, must be done at a
lower temperature; therefore, such poultry is generally roasted. Old
poultry, particularly old chicken, or fowl, which is apt to be tough,
requires still more cooking, and for this reason is stewed, braized, or
fricasseed. The recipes for the cooking of various kinds of poultry here
given will serve to make clear the cookery method to employ, as well as
how to carry it out to advantage.


PREPARATION BY BROILING

46. The method of broiling in the case of poultry of all kinds does not
differ in any way from the same method applied to cuts of meat. Since
broiling is a rapid method of cookery and heat is applied at a high
temperature, it is necessary that the poultry chosen for broiling be
young and tender and have a comparatively small amount of meat on
the bones.

[Illustration: FIG. 24]

Broiled poultry is not an economical dish, neither is it one in which
the greatest possible amount of flavor is obtained, since, as in the
case of the meat of animals used for food, the flavor develops with the
age of the birds. However, broiled poultry has value in the diet of
invalids and persons with poor appetite and digestion, for if it is
properly done it is appetizing and easily digested.

[Illustration: Fig. 25]

47. BROILED POULTRY.--Poultry that is to be broiled must first be
dressed, drawn, and cleaned. Then, as has been mentioned for the
preparation of small birds, lay the bird open by cutting down along the
spine, beginning at the neck, as shown in Fig. 24. This will permit the
bird to be spread apart, as in Fig. 25. When it is thus made ready,
washed, and wiped dry, heat the broiler and grease it. Then place the
bird on the broiler in the manner shown in Fig. 26 and expose it to
severe heat. Sear quickly on one side, and turn and sear on the other
side. Then reduce the heat to a lower temperature and broil more slowly,
turning often. To prevent burning, the parts that stand up close to the
flame may be covered with strips of bacon fastened on with skewers;
also, to get the best results, the side of the bird on which the flesh
is thick should be exposed to the heat for a greater length of time than
the other side. If there is any danger of the high places burning in the
broiler, the bird may be removed and the cooking continued in a hot
oven. Broiled poultry should be well done when served. This means, then,
particularly in the case of chickens, that the broiling process should
be carried on for about 20 minutes. When the bird is properly cooked,
remove it from the broiler, place it on a hot platter, dot it with
butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, garnish, and serve.

[Illustration: Fig. 26]


PREPARATION BY FRYING

48. As has been mentioned, birds slightly older and larger than those
used for broiling should be fried, because frying is a slower method and
gives the flesh a more thorough cooking. However, most of the dishes
commonly known as fried poultry are not fried, but sautéd in shallow
fat. The same principles employed in sautéing any food are applied in
the cooking of poultry by this method; that is, the surface is seared as
quickly as possible and the cooking is finished at a lower temperature.
Often in this cooking process, the pieces to be sautéd are dipped into
batter or rolled in flour to assist in keeping the juices in the meat.

49. FRIED CHICKEN.--To many persons, fried chicken--or, rather, sautéd
chicken, as it should be called--is very appetizing. Chicken may be
fried whole, but usually it is cut up, and when this is done it serves
to better advantage. Likewise, the method of preparation is one that
adds flavor to young chicken, which would be somewhat flavorless if
prepared in almost any other way.

Frying is not a difficult cookery process. To prepare chickens, which
should be young ones, for this method of preparation, draw, clean, and
cut them up in the manner previously explained. When they are ready,
wash the pieces and roll them in a pan of flour, covering the entire
surface of each piece. Then, in a frying pan, melt fat, which may be
chicken fat, bacon fat, part butter, lard, or any other frying fat that
will give an agreeable flavor. When the fat is thoroughly hot, place in
it the pieces of floured chicken and sprinkle them with salt and pepper.
As soon as the pieces have browned on one side, turn them over and brown
on the other side. Then reduce the heat, cover the frying pan with a
tight-fitting lid, and continue to fry more slowly. If, after 25 or 30
minutes, the meat can be easily pierced with a fork, it is ready to
serve; if this cannot be done, add a small quantity of hot water,
replace the cover, and simmer until the meat can be pierced readily. To
serve fried chicken, place the pieces on a platter and garnish the dish
with parsley so as to add to its appearance.

50. GRAVY FOR FRIED CHICKEN.--If desired, brown gravy may be made and
served with fried chicken. After the chicken has been removed from the
frying pan, provided an excessive amount of fat remains, pour off some
of it. Sprinkle the fat that remains with dry flour, 1 tablespoonful to
each cupful of liquid that is to be used, which may be milk, cream,
water, or any mixture of the three. Stir the flour into the hot fat.
Heat the liquid and add this hot liquid to the fat and flour in the
frying pan. Stir rapidly so that no lumps will form, and, if necessary,
season with more salt and pepper to suit the taste.

Gravy may also be made in this manner: Stir cold liquid slowly into the
flour in the proportion of 1 tablespoonful of flour to 1 cupful of
liquid, which may be milk, cream, water, or any mixture of the three.
Add the cold liquid and flour to the frying pan containing a small
amount of fat in which the chicken was fried. Stir rapidly until the
gravy has thickened and there are no lumps.

Very often the giblets, that is, the liver, heart, and gizzard of
chicken, are used in making gravy. For example, the giblets may be
cooked in water until they are tender and then sautéd in butter to
serve, and when this is done the water in which they were cooked may be
used for making gravy. Again, if it is not desired to eat them in this
way, they may be chopped fine and added to gravy made from the fat that
remains from frying.

51. MARYLAND FRIED CHICKEN.--Maryland fried chicken is a popular dish
with many persons. As a rule, corn fritters are used as a garnish and
Served with the chicken, and strips of crisp bacon are placed over the
top of it. Often, too, potato croquettes are served on the same platter,
a combination that makes almost an entire meal.

To prepare Maryland fried chicken, draw, clean, and cut up young
chickens. Then wash the pieces and dry them with a soft cloth. Sprinkle
the pieces with salt and pepper, and dip each into fine cracker crumbs
or corn meal, then into beaten egg, and again into the crumbs or the
corn meal. Next, melt in a frying pan chicken or bacon fat, part butter,
lard, or any other fat for frying. When it is hot, place the pieces of
chicken in it. Fry them until they are brown on one side; then turn and
brown them on the other side. Lower the temperature and continue to fry
slowly until the meat may be easily pierced with a fork. When the
chicken is done, pour 2 cupfuls of white sauce on a hot platter and
place the chicken in it. Then garnish and serve.

52. FRIED CHICKEN WITH PAPRIKA SAUCE.--Chickens that are a trifle older
than those used for plain fried chicken may be prepared to make what is
known as fried chicken with paprika sauce. If in preparing this dish the
chicken does not appear to be tender after frying, it may be made so by
simmering it in the sauce.

To prepare this chicken dish, which is tempting to many, draw, clean,
and cut up a chicken as for frying. Then melt fat in a frying pan, place
the pieces in the hot fat, sprinkle them with salt and pepper, and brown
on both sides quickly. When both sides are brown, continue to fry the
pieces until they are tender. Then sprinkle all with 2 level
tablespoonfuls of flour, add 2 cupfuls of milk or thin cream, and allow
this to thicken. Then sprinkle with paprika until the sauce is pink. Let
the chicken simmer slowly until the sauce penetrates the meat a little.
Serve on a platter with a garnish.


PREPARATION BY ROASTING

53. Roasting is the cookery process that is commonly employed for
preparing chickens that are of good size, as well as turkeys, ducks, and
geese. It is also followed at times for cooking guinea fowl, partridges,
pheasants, and similar small birds. As a rule, birds prepared in this
way are filled with stuffing, which may be made in so many ways that
roasted stuffed poultry makes a delightful change in the regular
routine of meals.

[Illustration: Fig. 27]

54. ROAST CHICKEN.--Roasting is the best method to employ for the
preparation of old chicken unless, of course, it is extremely old and
tough. Then stewing is about the only method that is satisfactory.
Chicken for roasting should weigh no less than 3 pounds. Chicken
prepared according to the following directions makes a dish that is very
appetizing.

[Illustration: Fig. 28]

To prepare chicken for roasting, clean and draw it in the manner
previously given. When it is made clean, rub salt and pepper on the
inside of the cavity, and stuff the cavity of the chicken, as shown in
Fig. 27, with any desirable stuffing. Directions for preparing stuffing
are given later. Also, fill with stuffing the space from which the crop
was removed, inserting it through the slit in the neck. Thread a large
darning needle with white cord and sew up the slit in the neck, as well
as the one between the legs, as in Fig. 28, so that the stuffing will
not fall out. Also, force the neck inside of the skin, and tie the skin
with a piece of string, as in Fig. 29. Then, as Fig. 29 also shows,
truss the chicken by forcing the tip of each wing back of the first wing
joint, making a triangle; also, tie the ends of the legs together and
pull them down, tying them fast to the tail, as in Fig. 30. Trussing in
this manner will give the chicken a much better appearance for serving
than if it were not so fastened; but, of course, before it is placed on
the table, the strings must be cut and removed. After stuffing and
trussing, put the chicken on its back in a roasting pan, sprinkle it
with flour, and place it in a very hot oven. Sear the skin quickly. Then
reduce the temperature slightly and pour a cupful of water into the
roasting pan. Baste the chicken every 10 or 15 minutes with this water,
until it is well browned and the breast and legs may be easily pierced
with a fork. Remove to a platter and serve. If gravy is desired, it may
be made in the roasting pan in the same way as for fried chicken. The
giblets may be cut into pieces and added or they may be left out and
served after first cooking and then browning them.

[Illustration: Fig. 29]

55. ROAST TURKEY.--In America, roast turkey is usually considered as a
holiday dish, being served most frequently in the homes on Thanksgiving
day. However, at times when the price is moderate, it is not an
extravagance to serve roast turkey for other occasions. Roasting is
practically the only way in which turkey is prepared in the usual
household, and it is by far the best method of preparation.
Occasionally, however, a very tough turkey is steamed before roasting in
order to make it sufficiently tender.

[Illustration: Fig. 30]

The preparation of roast turkey does not differ materially from the
method given for the preparation of roast chicken. After the turkey is
cleaned, drawn, and prepared according to the directions previously
given, rub the inside of the cavity with salt and pepper. Then stuff
with any desirable stuffing, filling the cavity and also the space under
the skin of the neck where the crop was removed. Then sew up the
opening, draw the skin over the neck and tie it, and truss the turkey by
forcing the tip of each wing back of the first wing joint in a
triangular shape and tying both ends of the legs to the tail. When thus
made ready, place the turkey in the roasting pan so that the back rests
on the pan and the legs are on top. Then dredge with flour, sprinkle
with salt and pepper, and place in a hot oven. When its surface is well
browned, reduce the heat and baste every 15 minutes until the turkey is
cooked. This will usually require about 3 hours, depending, of course,
on the size of the bird. For basting, melt 4 tablespoonfuls of butter or
bacon fat in 1/2 cupful of boiling water. Pour this into the roasting
pan. Add water when this evaporates, and keep a sufficient amount for
basting. Turn the turkey several times during the roasting, so that the
sides and back, as well as the breast, will be browned. When the turkey
can be easily pierced with a fork, remove it from the roasting pan, cut
the strings and pull them out, place on a platter, garnish, and serve.
Gravy to be served with roast turkey may be made in the manner
mentioned for making gravy to be served with fried chicken.

56. ROAST DUCK.--While young duck is often broiled, the usual method of
preparing this kind of poultry is by roasting; in fact, roasting is an
excellent way in which to cook duck that is between the broiling age and
full maturity.

57. Duck is roasted in practically the same way as chicken or turkey. In
the case of a _young duck_, or _spring duck_, however, stuffing is not
used. After it is drawn and cleaned, truss it by folding back the wings
and tying the ends of the legs to the tail, so as to give it a good
appearance when served. Season with salt and pepper and dredge with
flour, and, over the breast, to prevent it from burning, place strips of
bacon or salt pork. When thus made ready, put the duck in a roasting
pan, pour in 1/2 cupful of water, and cook it in a hot oven until it is
very tender, basting it about every 15 minutes during the roasting.
About 15 minutes before the roasting is done, remove the strips of bacon
or pork, so as to permit the breast underneath them to brown. Serve on a
platter with a garnish. Make gravy if desired.

58. In the case of an _old duck_, proceed as for roasting chicken or
turkey; that is, draw, clean, stuff, and truss it. In addition, place
strips of bacon or salt pork over its breast. Place it in a roasting
pan, pour 1/2 cupful of water into the pan, and put it in a hot oven.
During the roasting baste the duck every 15 minutes; also, as in
roasting a young duck, remove the bacon or salt pork in plenty of time
to permit the part underneath to brown. When the surface is well browned
and the meat may be easily pierced with a fork, place the duck on a
platter, remove the strings used to sew it up, garnish, and serve. Make
gravy if desired.

59. ROAST GOOSE.--Specific directions for roasting goose are not given,
because the methods differ in no way from those already given for
roasting duck. Very young goose, or green goose, is usually roasted
without being stuffed, just as young duck. Older goose, however, is
stuffed, trussed, and roasted just as old duck. A very old goose may be
placed in a roasting pan and steamed until it is partly tender before
roasting. Apples in some form or other are commonly served with goose.
For example, rings of fried apple may be used as a garnish, or apple
sauce or stewed or baked apples may be served as an accompaniment. Make
gravy if desired.

60. ROAST SMALL BIRDS.--Such small birds as guinea fowl, partridge,
pheasant, quail, etc. may be roasted if desired, but on account of being
so small they are seldom filled with stuffing. To roast such poultry,
first clean, draw, and truss them. Then lard them with strips of bacon
or salt pork, and place in a roasting pan in a very hot oven. During the
roasting, turn them so as to brown all sides; also, baste every 15
minutes during the roasting with the water that has been poured into the
roasting pan. Continue the roasting until the flesh is very soft and the
joints can be easily pulled apart. Serve with a garnish. Make gravy
if desired.

61. STUFFING FOR ROAST POULTRY.--As has been mentioned, stuffing, or
dressing, of some kind is generally used when poultry is roasted.
Therefore, so that the housewife may be prepared to vary the stuffing
she uses from time to time, recipes for several kinds are here given.
Very often, instead of using the giblets for gravy, they are cooked in
water and then chopped and added to the stuffing. Giblets are not
included in the recipes here given, but they may be added if desired.
The quantities stated in these recipes are usually sufficient for a bird
of average size; however, for a smaller or a larger bird the ingredients
may be decreased or increased accordingly.

BREAD STUFFING

4 c. dry bread crumbs
1/2 c. butter
1 small onion
1 beaten egg
1 tsp. salt
1 tsp. celery salt, or 1/2 tsp. celery seed
1/4 tsp. powdered sage (if desired)
1/4 tsp. pepper

Pour a sufficient amount of hot water over the bread crumbs to moisten
them well. Melt the butter and allow it to brown slightly. Add the
onion, chopped fine, to the butter and pour this over the bread crumbs.
Add the beaten egg, salt, celery salt, and other seasonings, mix
thoroughly, and stuff into the bird.

CRACKER STUFFING

3 c. cracker crumbs
1 small onion (if desired)
1/3 c. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. powdered sage (if desired)
1/4 tsp. pepper

Moisten the cracker crumbs with hot milk or water until they are quite
soft. Brown the chopped onion with the butter and pour over the
crackers. Add the seasonings, mix thoroughly, and stuff into the bird.

OYSTER STUFFING

3 c.  dry bread crumbs
1/4 c. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 c. oysters
| c. chopped celery

Moisten the bread crumbs with a sufficient amount of hot water to make
them quite soft. Brown the butter slightly and add it, with the
seasonings, to the bread. Mix with this the oysters and chopped celery.
Stuff into the bird.

CHESTNUT STUFFING

1 pt. blanched chestnuts
1 pt. bread crumbs
1/4 c. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. chopped parsley

Blanch the chestnuts in boiling water to remove the dark skin that
covers them. Cook them until they are quite soft, and then chop them or
mash them. Moisten the bread crumbs with hot water and add the
chestnuts. Brown the butter slightly and pour it over the mixture. Add
the seasonings and chopped parsley and stuff.

GREEN-PEPPER STUFFING

1 qt. dried bread crumbs
1 c. stewed tomatoes
1/4 c. melted butter
2 Tb. bacon fat
1 small onion, chopped
1/4 c. finely chopped green pepper
2 Tb. chopped parsley
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper

Moisten the bread crumbs with the stewed tomatoes and add a sufficient
amount of hot water to make the crumbs quite soft. Melt the butter and
bacon fat, add the onion, green pepper, and the seasonings, and pour
over the crumbs. Mix thoroughly and stuff.

RICE STUFFING

2 c. steamed rice
2 c. bread crumbs
1 c. stewed tomatoes
1/4 c. chopped pimiento
2 Tb. chopped parsley
1 small onion, chopped
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1/4 c. butter
4 small strips bacon, diced and fried brown

Mix the steamed rice with the bread crumbs. Add the stewed tomatoes,
pimiento, chopped parsley, chopped onion, salt, pepper, melted butter,
bacon and bacon fat, and a sufficient amount of hot water to moisten the
whole well. Mix thoroughly and stuff.

PEANUT STUFFING FOR ROAST DUCK

1 pt. cracker crumbs
1 c. shelled peanuts, finely chopped
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of Cayenne pepper
1/4 c. butter
Hot milk

Mix the crumbs and the chopped peanuts. Add the salt, pepper, and
Cayenne pepper, and pour over them the melted butter and a sufficient
amount of hot milk to soften the whole. Stuff into the duck.

LIVER STUFFING FOR ROAST DUCK

1 duck liver
1/4 c. butter
1 small onion, chopped
2 c. dry bread crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1 egg

Chop the liver and sauté in the butter to which has been added the
chopped onion. Pour over the bread crumbs. Then add the salt, pepper,
finely chopped parsley, and the beaten egg. Pour over all a sufficient
amount of water to moisten well. Stuff into the duck.


BONED CHICKEN

62. To offer variety in the serving of chicken, as well as to present an
easily carved bird, the process known as _boning_ is often resorted to.
Boning, as will be readily understood, consists in removing the flesh
from the bones before the bird is cooked. Boned chicken may be prepared
by roasting or broiling. In either case, the cookery process is the same
as that already given for poultry that is not boned. If it is to be
roasted, the cavity that results from the removal of the bones and
internal organs should be filled with stuffing or forcemeat, so that the
bird will appear as if nothing had been removed. If it is to be broiled,
stuffing is not necessary. Cooked boned chicken may be served either hot
or cold. Of course, other kinds of poultry may be boned if desired, and
if the directions here given for boning chicken are thoroughly learned
no difficulty will be encountered in performing this operation on any
kind. Boning is not a wasteful process as might be supposed, because
after the flesh is removed from the bones, they may be used in the
making of soup.

[Illustration: FIG. 31]

[Illustration: FIG. 32]

[Illustration: FIG. 33]

[Illustration: FIG. 34]

[Illustration: FIG. 35]

[Illustration: FIG. 36]

[Illustration: FIG. 37]

63. Before proceeding to bone a chicken, singe it, pull out the pin
feathers, cut off the head, remove the tendons from the legs, and
take out the crop through the neck. The bird may be drawn or not before
boning it, but in any event care must be taken not to break any part of
the skin. With these matters attended to, wash the skin well and wipe it
carefully. First, cut off the legs at the first joint, and, with the
point of a sharp knife, as shown in Fig. 31, loosen the skin and muscles
just above the joint by cutting around the bone. Cut the neck off close
to the body, as in Fig. 32. Then, starting at the neck, cut the skin
clear down the back to the tail, as in Fig. 33. [Illustration: FIG. 38]
Begin on one side, and scrape the flesh, with the skin attached to it,
from the back bone, as in Fig. 34. When the shoulder blade is reached,
push the flesh from it with the fingers, as in Fig. 35, until the wing
joint is reached. Disjoint the wing where it is attached to the body, as
in Fig. 36, and loosen the skin from the wing bone down to the second
joint. Disjoint the bone here and remove it up to this place, as Fig. 37
illustrates. The remaining bone is left in the tip of the wing to give
it shape. When the bone from one wing is removed, turn the chicken
around and remove the bone from the other wing. Next, start at the back,
separating the flesh from the ribs, as in Fig. 38, taking care not to
penetrate into the side cavity of the chicken, provided it has not
[Illustration: FIG. 39] been drawn. Push the flesh down to the thigh, as
in Fig. 39, disjoint the bone here, and remove it down to the second
joint, as in Fig. 40. Disjoint the bone at the other joint, and
remove the skin and meat from the bone by turning them inside out, as in
Fig. 41. If the bone has been properly loosened at the first joint of
the leg, there will be no trouble in slipping it out. When this is done,
turn the meat and skin back again, so that they will be right side out.
Then proceed in the same way with the other leg. Next, free the flesh
from the collar bone down to the breast bone on both sides, proceeding
as in Fig. 42. When the ridge of the breast bone is reached, care must
be taken not to break the skin that lies very close to the bone. The
fingers should be used to separate the flesh at this place. When the
sides and front have been thus taken care of, free the skin and the
flesh from the bones over the rump. After this is done, the skeleton and
internal organs of the undrawn bird may be removed, leaving the flesh
intact. The skeleton of a chicken will appear as in Fig. 43.

[Illustration: Fig. 40]

[Illustration: Fig. 41]

[Illustration: Fig. 42]

[Illustration: FIG. 43]

[Illustration: FIG. 44]

[Illustration: FIG. 45]

If the boned chicken is to be roasted, the entire chicken, including the
spaces from which the wing and leg bones were removed, may be filled
with highly seasoned stuffing. When this is done, shape the chicken as
much as possible to resemble its original shape and sew up the back. The
chicken will then be ready to roast. If the boned chicken is to be
broiled, shape it on the broiler as shown in Fig. 44 and broil. When
broiled, boned chicken should appear as in Fig. 45.


PREPARATION BY STEWING AND OTHER COOKING METHODS

64. CHICKEN STEW WITH DUMPLINGS OR NOODLES.--Perhaps the most common way
of preparing chicken is to stew it. When chicken is so cooked, such an
addition as dumplings or noodles is generally made because of the
excellent food combination that results. For stewing, an old chicken
with a great deal of flavor should be used in preference to a young one,
which will have less flavor.

In order to prepare chicken by stewing, clean, draw, and cut up the bird
according to directions previously given. Place the pieces in a large
kettle and cover them well with boiling water. Bring all quickly to the
boiling point and add 2 teaspoonfuls of salt. Then remove the scum,
lower the temperature, and continue to cook at the simmering point. Keep
the pieces well covered with water; also, keep the stew pot covered
during the cooking. When the chicken has become tender enough to permit
the pieces to be easily pierced with a fork, remove them to a deep
platter or a vegetable dish. Dumplings or noodles may be cooked in the
chicken broth, as the water in which the chicken was stewed is called,
or they may be boiled or steamed separately. If they are cooked
separately, thicken the broth with flour and serve it over the chicken
with the noodles or dumplings.

65. FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN.--For chicken that is tough, fricasseeing is an
excellent cooking method to employ. Indeed, since it is a long method of
cookery, a rather old, comparatively tough fowl lends itself best to
fricasseeing. Fricassee of chicken also is a dish that requires a great
deal of flavor to be drawn from the meat, and this, of course, cannot be
done if a young chicken is used.

To prepare fricassee of chicken, clean and cut the bird into pieces
according to the directions previously given. Put these into a saucepan,
cover with boiling water, add 2 teaspoonfuls of salt, bring to the
boiling point quickly, skim, and reduce the temperature so that the meat
will simmer slowly until it is tender. Next, remove the pieces of
chicken from the water in which they were cooked, roll them in flour,
and sauté them in butter or chicken fat until they are nicely browned.
If more than 2 or 2 1/2 cupfuls of broth remains, boil it until the
quantity is reduced to this amount. Then moisten 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls
of flour with a little cold water, add this to the stock, and cook until
it thickens. If desired, the broth may be reduced more and thin cream
may be added to make up the necessary quantity. Arrange the pieces of
chicken on a deep platter, pour the sauce over them, season with salt
and pepper if necessary, and serve. To enhance the appearance of this
dish, the platter may be garnished with small three-cornered pieces of
toast, tiny carrots, or carrots and green peas.

66. CHICKEN PIE.--A good change from the usual ways of serving chicken
may be brought about by means of chicken pie. Such a dish is simple to
prepare, and for it may be used young or old chicken.

To prepare chicken pie, dress, clean, and cut up a chicken in the usual
manner. Put it into a saucepan, add a small onion and a sprig of
parsley, cover with boiling water, and cook slowly until the meat is
tender. When the meat is cooked, add 2 teaspoonfuls of salt and 1/4
teaspoonful of pepper, and when it is perfectly tender remove it from
the stock. Thicken the stock with 1 tablespoonful of flour to each
cupful of liquid. Next, arrange the chicken in a baking dish. It may be
left on the bones or cut into large pieces and the bones removed. To it
add small carrots and onions that have been previously cooked until
tender and pour the thickened stock over all. Cover this with
baking-powder biscuit dough made according to the directions given in
_Hot Breads_ and rolled 1/4 inch thick. Make some holes through the
dough with the point of a sharp knife to let the steam escape, and bake
in a moderate oven until the dough is well risen and a brown crust is
formed. Then remove from the oven and serve.

67. CHICKEN CURRY.--Chicken combined with rice is usually an agreeable
food combination, but when flavored with curry powder, as in the recipe
here given, it is a highly flavored dish that appeals to the taste of
many persons.

CHICKEN CURRY

1 3 lb. chicken
2 Tb. butter
2 onions
1 Tb. curry powder
2 tsp. salt
2 c. steamed rice

Clean, dress, and cut up the chicken as for stewing. Put the butter in a
hot frying pan, add the onions, sliced thin, then the pieces of chicken,
and cook for 10 minutes. Parboil the liver, gizzard, and heart, cut them
into pieces and add them to the chicken in the frying pan. Sprinkle the
curry powder and the salt over the whole. Add boiling water or the stock
in which the giblets were cooked, and simmer until the chicken is
tender. Remove the meat from the frying pan and place it on a deep
platter. Surround it with a border of steamed rice. Thicken the stock in
the frying pan slightly with flour and pour the gravy over the chicken.
Serve hot.

68. CHICKEN EN CASSEROLE.--Food prepared in casseroles always seems to
meet with the approval of even the most discriminating persons; and
chicken prepared in this way with vegetables is no exception to the
rule. For such a dish should be selected a chicken of medium size that
is neither very old nor very young. Any flavor that the bird contains is
retained, so a strong flavor is not desirable.

In preparing chicken en casserole, first clean, dress, and cut it up in
the manner directed for stewed chicken. Place the pieces in a casserole
dish, together with 1 cupful of small carrots or larger carrots cut into
strips. Fry a finely chopped onion with several strips of bacon, and
cut these more finely while frying until the whole is well browned. Then
add them to the meat in the casserole dish. Also, add 1 cupful of potato
balls or 1 cupful of diced potatoes. Season well with salt and pepper,
add 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, and over the whole pour sufficient hot
water to cover. Cover the casserole dish, place it in a moderate oven,
and cook slowly until the chicken is tender. Serve from the dish.

69. JELLIED CHICKEN.--The housewife who desires to serve an unusual
chicken dish will find that there is much in favor of jellied chicken.
Aside from its food value, jellied chicken has merit in that it appeals
to the eye, especially if the mold used in its preparation has a
pleasing shape.

JELLIED CHICKEN

1 3 or 4 lb. chicken
2 tsp. salt
Several slices of onion
1 hard-cooked egg
1 pimiento
Several sprigs of parsley

Clean, dress, and cut up the chicken. Put it into a saucepan and cover
with boiling water. Season with the salt and add the slices of onion.
Cook slowly until the meat will fall from the bones. Remove the chicken
from the saucepan, take the meat from the bones, and chop it into small
pieces. Reduce the stock to about 1 1/2 cupfuls, strain it, and skim off
the fat. With this done, place slices of the hard-cooked egg in the
bottom of a wet mold. Chop the pimiento and sprigs of parsley and mix
them with the chopped meat. Put the mixture on top of the sliced egg,
and pour the stock over the whole. Keep in a cool place until it is set.
If the stock is not reduced and more jelly is desired, unflavored
gelatine may be dissolved and added to coagulate the liquid. To serve
jellied chicken, remove from the mold, turn upside down, so that the
eggs are on top and act as a garnish, and then cut in thin slices.

70. CHICKEN BECHAMEL.--Still another chicken dish that may be used to
break the monotony of meals is chicken bechamel, the word bechamel being
the name of a sauce invented by Béchamel, who was steward to Louis XIV,
a king of France.

CHICKEN BECHAMEL

1 good-sized chicken
2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 c. small mushrooms
1/4 c. chopped pimiento
3 Tb. flour
1 c. thin cream

Clean, dress, and cut up the chicken. Place the pieces into a saucepan,
and cover with boiling water. Add the salt and the pepper, and allow to
come to the boiling point. Remove the scum and simmer the chicken slowly
until it is tender. Remove the chicken from the liquid, take the meat
from the bones, and cut it into small pieces. Add to these the mushrooms
and chopped pimiento. Reduce the stock to 1 cupful and thicken it with
the flour added to the thin cream. Cook until the sauce is thickened.
Then add to it the chopped chicken with the other ingredients. Heat all
thoroughly and serve on toast points or in timbale cases, the making of
which is explained in _Meat_, Part 2.

71. COOKING OF GIBLETS.--As has been pointed out, the giblets--that is,
the liver, heart, and gizzard of all kinds of fowl--are used in gravy
making and as an ingredient for stuffing. When poultry is stewed, as in
making stewed chicken, it is not uncommon to cook the giblets with the
pieces of chicken. The gizzard and heart especially require long, slow
cooking to make them tender enough to be eaten. Therefore, when poultry
is broiled, fried, or roasted, some other cookery method must be
resorted to, as these processes are too rigid for the preparation of
giblets. In such cases, the best plan is to cook them in water until
they are tender and then sauté them in butter. When cooked in this way,
they may be served with the poultry, for to many persons they are very
palatable.


DISHES FROM LEFT-OVER POULTRY

72. Left-over poultry of any kind is too valuable to be wasted, but even
if this were not so there are so many practical ways in which such
left-overs may be used to advantage that it would be the height of
extravagance not to utilize them. The bones that remain from roast fowl
after carving are especially good for soup making, as they will yield
quite a quantity of flavor when they are thoroughly cooked. If
sufficient meat remains on the carcass to permit of slicing, such meat
may be served cold. However, if merely small pieces are left or if fried
or broiled poultry remains, it will be advisable to make some other use
of these left-overs. It is often possible for the ingenious housewife to
add other foods to them so as to increase the quantity and thus make
them serve more. For example, a small quantity of pork or veal may be
satisfactorily used with chicken, as may also pieces of hard-cooked
eggs, celery, mushrooms, etc. In fact, salads may be made by combining
such ingredients and salad dressings. To show the use of left-overs
still further, there are here given a number of recipes that may well
be used.

73. Chicken Salad.--A common way in which to utilize left-over chicken
is in chicken salad. Such salad may be served to advantage for luncheons
and other light meals.

CHICKEN SALAD

2 c. cold diced chicken
1 c. chopped celery
1 small onion, chopped
Salad dressing
2 hard-cooked eggs

Mix the meat with the chopped celery and onion. Marinate with
well-seasoned vinegar or a little lemon juice. French dressing may be
used for this if oil is desired. Just before serving pour off any excess
liquid. Add any desired salad dressing. Heap the salad on lettuce leaves
and garnish with slices of the hard-cooked eggs.

74. Chicken á la King.--Chicken à la king is not necessarily a left-over
dish, for it may be made from either left-over chicken or, if desired,
chicken cooked especially for it. It makes an excellent dish to prepare
in a chafing dish, but it may be conveniently prepared in a saucepan on
the fire and served in any desirable way.

CHICKEN À LA KING

3 Tb. fat (butter or bacon fat or part of each)
2 Tb. flour
3/4 c. chicken stock
1 c. milk or thin cream
1 tsp. salt
1/2 c. mushrooms
1/4 c. canned pimiento
1-1/2 c. cold chicken
2 eggs

Melt the fat in a saucepan, add the flour, and stir until well mixed.
Heat the stock and the milk or cream, pour this into the mixture, stir
rapidly, and bring to boiling point. Add the salt and the mushrooms,
pimientoes, and cold chicken cut into pieces 1/2 to 1 inch long, allow
the mixture to come to the boiling point again, and add the slightly
beaten eggs. Remove from the fire at once to prevent the egg from
curdling. Serve over pieces of fresh toast and sprinkle with paprika.

75. Chicken Croquettes.--Left-over chicken may be used to advantage for
croquettes made according to the following recipe. When the ingredients
listed are combined with chicken, an especially agreeable food will be
the result. If there is not sufficient cold chicken to meet the
requirements, a small quantity of cold veal or pork may be chopped with
the chicken.

CHICKEN CROQUETTES

3 Tb. fat
1/4 c. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/4 tsp. paprika
1 c. chicken stock or cream
2 c. cold chicken, chopped
1/4. mushrooms, chopped
1 tsp. parsley, chopped
1 egg
Fine bread crumbs

Melt the fat in a saucepan, add the flour, and stir until well blended.
Add the salt, pepper, and paprika. Heat the stock or cream and add to
the mixture in the saucepan. Stir constantly until the sauce is
completely thickened. Then add the chopped chicken, mushrooms, and
parsley. When cold, shape into oblong croquettes, roll in the egg,
slightly beaten, and then in fine crumbs. Fry in deep fat until brown.
Serve with a garnish or some vegetable, such as peas, diced carrots, or
small pieces of cauliflower, as well as with left-over chicken gravy or
well-seasoned white sauce.

76. TURKEY HASH.--Possibly the simplest way in which to utilize
left-over turkey meat is to make it up into hash. Such a dish may be
used for almost any meal, and when made according to the recipe here
given it will suit the taste of nearly every person.

TURKEY HASH

2 Tb. butter
1/2 c. coarse rye-bread crumbs
1 small onion, sliced
2 c. finely chopped cold turkey
1/2 c. finely chopped raw potato
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 pt. milk

Melt the butter in a saucepan. When brown, add to it the rye-bread
crumbs and mix well. Then add the sliced onion, chopped turkey, potato,
salt, and pepper. Cook for a short time on top of the stove, stirring
frequently to prevent burning. Pour the milk over the whole, and place
the pan in the oven or on the back of the stove. Cook slowly until the
milk is reduced and the hash is sufficiently dry to serve. Serve on
buttered toast.

77. CHICKEN WITH RICE.--Left-over chicken may be readily combined with
rice to make a nutritious dish. To prepare chicken with rice, add to
left-over gravy any left-over cold chicken cut into small pieces. If
there is not enough gravy to cover the meat, add sufficient white sauce;
if no gravy remains, use white sauce entirely. Heat the chicken in the
gravy or the sauce to the boiling point. Then heap a mound of fresh
steamed or boiled rice in the center of a deep platter or a vegetable
dish and pour the chicken and sauce over it. Serve hot.

78. Baked Poultry With Rice.--A casserole or a baking dish serves as a
good utensil in which to prepare a left-over dish of any kind of
poultry, because it permits vegetables to be added and cooked
thoroughly. Baked poultry with rice is a dish that may be prepared in
such a utensil.

Line a casserole or a baking dish with a thick layer of fresh steamed or
boiled rice. Fill the center with chopped cold poultry, which may be
chicken, turkey, duck, or goose. Add peas, chopped carrots, potato, and
a few slices of onion in any desirable proportion. Over this pour
sufficient left-over gravy or white sauce to cover well. First, steam
thoroughly; then uncover the utensil and bake slowly until the
vegetables are cooked and the entire mixture is well heated. Serve from
the casserole or baking dish.


SERVING AND CARVING POULTRY

79. Poultry of any kind should always be served on a platter or in a
dish that has been heated in the oven or by running hot water over it.
After placing the cooked bird on the platter or the dish from which it
is to be served, it should be taken to the dining room and placed before
the person who is to serve. If it is roasted, it will require carving.
If not, the pieces may be served as they are desired by the individuals
at the table. Poultry having both dark and white meat is usually served
according to the taste of each individual at the table. If no preference
is stated, however, a small portion of each kind of meat is
generally served.

80. The carving of broiled or roast chicken, turkey, duck, or goose may
be done in the kitchen, but having the whole bird brought to the table
and carved there adds considerably to a meal. Carving is usually done by
the head of the family, but in a family in which there are boys each one
should be taught to carve properly, so that he may do the carving in the
absence of another person.

[Illustration: FIG. 46]

[Illustration: FIG. 47]

[Illustration: FIG. 48]

[Illustration: FIG. 49]

For carving, the bird should be placed on the platter so that it rests
on its back; also, a well-sharpened carving knife and a fork should be
placed at the right of the platter and the person who is to serve. To
carve a bird, begin as shown in Fig. 46; that is, thrust the fork firmly
into the side or breast of the fowl and cut through the skin where the
leg joins the body, breaking the thigh joint. Cut through this joint,
severing the second joint and leg in one piece. Then, if desired, cut
the leg apart at the second joint. As the portions are thus cut, they
may be placed on a separate platter that is brought to the table heated.
Next, in the same manner, cut off the other leg and separate it at the
second joint. With the legs cut off, remove each wing at the joint where
it is attached to the body, proceeding as shown in Fig. 47. Then slice
the meat from the breast by cutting down from the ridge of the breast
bone toward the wing, as in Fig. 48. After this meat has been sliced
off, there still remains some meat around the thigh and on the back.
This should be sliced off or removed with the point of the knife, as in
Fig. 49, so that the entire skeleton will be clean, as in Fig. 50. If
the entire bird is not to be served, as much as is necessary may be cut
and the remainder left on the bones. With each serving of meat a
spoonful of dressing should be taken from the inside of the bird,
provided it is stuffed, and, together with some gravy, served on
the plate.

[Illustration: FIG. 50]

       *       *       *       *       *

GAME

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

81. GAME, which includes the meat of deer, bear, rabbit, squirrel, wild
duck, wild goose, partridge, pheasant, and some less common animals,
such as possum, is not a particularly common food. However, it is
sufficiently common to warrant a few directions concerning its use. Game
can be purchased or caught only during certain seasons, designated by
the laws of various states. Such laws are quite stringent and have been
made for the protection of each particular species.

82. The meat of wild animals and birds is usually strong in flavor. Just
why this is so, however, is not definitely known. Undoubtedly some of
the strong flavor is due to the particular food on which the animal or
the bird feeds, and much of this flavor is due to extractives contained
in the flesh.

When game birds and animals have considerable fat surrounding the
tissues, the greater part of it is often rejected because of its
extremely high flavor. By proper cooking, however, much of this flavor,
if it happens to be a disagreeable one, can be driven off.

The general composition of the flesh of various kinds of game does not
differ greatly from that of similar domestic animals or birds. For
instance, the flesh of bear is similar in its composition to that of fat
beef, as bear is one of the wild animals that is very fat. Venison, or
the meat obtained from deer, contains much less fat, and its composition
resembles closely that of very lean beef. Rabbits and most of the wild
birds are quite lean; in fact, they are so lean that it is necessary in
the preparation of them to supply sufficient fat to make them more
appetizing.


RECIPES FOR GAME

83. Only a few recipes for the preparation of game are here given,
because, in the case of wild birds, the cookery methods do not differ
materially from those given for poultry, and, in the case of such
animals as bears, the directions for preparing steaks and other cuts are
identical with the cooking of similar cuts of beef. Rabbit and squirrel
are perhaps the most common game used as food in the home; therefore,
directions for cleaning and cooking them receive the most consideration.

84. PREPARING A RABBIT FOR COOKING.--In order to prepare a rabbit for
cooking, it must first be skinned and drawn, after which it may be cut
up or left whole, depending on the cookery method that is to
be followed.

To skin a rabbit, first chop off the feet at the first joint; then
remove the head at the first joint below the skull and slit the skin of
the stomach from a point between the forelegs to the hind legs. With
this done, remove the entrails carefully, proceeding in much the same
manner as in removing the entrails of a chicken. Then slit the skin from
the opening in the stomach around the back to the opposite side. Catch
hold on the back and pull the skin first from the hind legs and then
from the forelegs. If the rabbit is to be stewed, wash it thoroughly and
separate it into pieces at the joints. If it is to be roasted or
braized, it may be left whole. A rabbit that is left whole presents a
better appearance when it is trussed. To truss a rabbit, force the hind
legs toward the head and fasten them in place by passing a skewer
through the leg on one side, through the body, and into the leg on the
other side. Then skewer the front legs back under the body in the same
way. In such a case, the head may be left on or removed, as desired.

85. ROAST RABBIT.--Roasting is the cookery process often used to prepare
rabbit. To cook it in this way, first skin and clean the animal and
stuff it. Any of the stuffings previously given may be used for this
purpose. Then skewer the legs in position, place strips of bacon across
the back, put in a roasting pan, and dredge with salt and pepper. Also,
add 1/2 cupful of hot water to which has been added a little butter or
bacon fat. Roast in a quick oven, and baste every 15 minutes during the
roasting. A few minutes before the rabbit is tender enough to be pierced
with a fork, remove the strips of bacon so that the flesh underneath may
brown. Then remove from the pan and serve.

86. SAUTÉD RABBIT.--If it is desired to prepare a rabbit by sautéing,
skin and clean it, cut it into pieces, and dry all the pieces with a
soft cloth. Then melt bacon fat in a frying pan, and when it is hot
place the pieces of rabbit in it and allow them to brown. Add several
sprigs of parsley and two small onions, sliced, season with salt and
pepper, add a slice or two of bacon, and pour water over the whole until
it is nearly covered. Place a cover on the frying pan and simmer slowly.
Add water when it is necessary. When the meat is tender, remove it from
the frying pan. Then thicken the fluid that remains with a small amount
of flour so as to make a gravy. Serve hot.

87. RABBIT PIE.--Rabbit made into pie is also a desirable way in which
to serve rabbit. To prepare such a dish, skin and clean one or more
rabbits and cut them up into as small pieces as possible, removing the
largest bones. Put these pieces into a baking dish, and over them place
bacon cut into small strips. Sprinkle all with chopped parsley, salt,
and pepper, and add a few slices of onion, as well as some strips of
carrot and potato, if desired. Pour a sufficient amount of boiling water
over the whole and allow to simmer slowly until the meat is partly
cooked. Then place in the oven and cook until the meat is tender. Next,
dredge the contents of the baking dish with flour and cover with a
1/4-inch layer of baking-powder biscuit dough. Make several slits
through the dough to allow the steam to escape. Bake until the dough
becomes a well-browned crust. Serve hot in the baking dish.

88. BROILED SQUIRREL.--For cooking, squirrel is cleaned in practically
the same way as rabbit. Squirrel may be made ready to eat by stewing,
but as it is so small a creature, broiling is the usual method of
preparation. To broil a squirrel, first remove the skin and clean it.
Then break the bones along the spine, so that the squirrel can be spread
out flat. When thus made ready, place it on a well-greased hot broiler
and sear it quickly on one side; then turn it and sear the other side.
Next, sprinkle it with salt and pepper, place strips of bacon across the
back, and allow it to broil slowly until it is well browned. Squirrel
may be served in the same way as rabbit.

89. CUTS OF VENISON.--The meat obtained from deer, called venison, as
has been mentioned, may be cut up to form cuts similar to those obtained
from beef, such as steaks and roasts. Although such meat is a rarity, it
will be well to be familiar with a few of the methods of cooking it.
These, however, do not differ materially from the methods of cooking
other meats.

90. BROILED VENISON.--To prepare venison for broiling, cut a steak from
1 to 1-1/2 inches thick. Place this on a well-greased broiler and broil
until well done. Serve on a hot platter. Garnish the broiled venison
with parsley and pour over it sauce made as follows:

SAUCE FOR BROILED VENISON

2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. ground cinnamon
4 Tb. currant jelly
2 tsp. lemon juice
1/4  c. port wine
6 finely chopped Maraschino cherries

Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, salt, ground cinnamon,
currant jelly, lemon juice, and the port wine, which should be heated
with 1 cupful of water. Cook until the flour has thickened, remove from
the fire, and add the cherries.

91. ROAST FILLET OF VENISON.--If a fillet of venison is to be roasted,
proceed by larding it with strips of salt pork. Then place it in a pan
with one small onion, sliced, a bay leaf, and a small quantity of
parsley, 1 teaspoonful of salt, and 1/4 teaspoonful of pepper. Dilute
1/4 cupful of vinegar with 3/4 cupful of water and add a teaspoonful of
Worcestershire sauce. Pour this over the fillet and place it in a hot
oven. Cook until the liquid has evaporated sufficiently to allow the
venison to brown. Turn, so as to brown on both sides, and when quite
tender and well browned, serve on a hot platter.

92. ROAST LEG OF VENISON.--If a leg of venison is to be roasted, first
remove the skin, wipe the meat with a damp cloth, and cover it with a
paste made of flour and water. Then put it into a roasting pan and roast
in a very hot oven. Baste with hot water every 15 minutes for about 1
1/2 hours. At the end of this time, remove the paste, spread the surface
with butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and continue to roast for 1
to 1 1/4 hours longer. Baste every 15 minutes, basting during the last
hour with hot water in which has been melted a small quantity of butter.
Then remove the venison from the pan and serve it on a hot platter with
any desired sauce.


POULTRY AND GAME

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS


(1) Of what value is poultry in the diet?

(2) What effect do the feeding and care of poultry have upon it as food?

(3) Mention briefly the proper preparation of poultry killed for market.

(4) (_a_) What are the most important things to consider when poultry is
to be selected? (_b_) Give the points that indicate good quality
of poultry.

(5) How would you determine the age of a chicken?

(6) How would you determine the freshness of a chicken?

(7) (_a_) What are the marks of cold-storage poultry? (_b_) Should
cold-storage poultry be drawn or undrawn? Tell why.

(8) How should frozen poultry be thawed?

(9) Tell briefly how turkey should be selected.

(10) At what age and season is turkey best?

(11) Discuss the selection of: (_a_) ducks; (_b_) geese.

(12) (_a_) How does the composition of poultry compare with that of
meat? (_b_) What kind of chicken has a high food value?

(13) (_a_) How should a chicken be dressed? (_b_) What care should be
given to the skin in plucking?

(14) Give briefly the steps in drawing a chicken.

(15) Give briefly the steps in cutting up a chicken.

(16) How is poultry prepared for: (_a_) roasting? (_b_) frying? (_c_)
broiling? (_d_) stewing?

(17) (_a_) Describe trussing, (_b_) Why is trussing done?

(18) Give briefly the steps in boning a chicken.

(19) Tell briefly how to serve and carve a roasted bird.

(20) Discuss game in a general way.


ADDITIONAL WORK

Select a fowl by applying the tests given for selection in the lesson.
Prepare it by what seems to you to be the most economical method. Tell
how many persons are served and the use made of the left-overs. Compute
the cost per serving by dividing the cost of the fowl by the number of
servings it made.

At another time, select a chicken for frying by applying the tests given
in the lesson. Compute the cost per serving by dividing the cost of the
chicken by the number of servings it made.

Compare the cost per serving of the fried chicken with that of the fowl,
to find which is the more economical. In each case, collect the bones
after the chicken is eaten and weigh them to determine which has the
greater proportion of bone to meat, the fowl or the frying chicken.
Whether you have raised the poultry yourself or have purchased it in the
market, use the market price in computing your costs. Weigh the birds
carefully before drawing them.

       *       *       *       *       *




FISH AND SHELL FISH

       *       *       *       *       *

FISH

FISH IN THE DIET

1. FISH provides another class of high-protein or tissue-building food.
As this term is generally understood, it includes both vertebrate
fish--that is, fish having a backbone, such as salmon, cod, shad,
etc.--and many other water animals, such as lobsters, crabs, shrimp,
oysters, and clams. A distinction, however, is generally made between
these two groups, those having bones being regarded properly as _fish_
and those partly or entirely encased in shells, as _shell fish_. It is
according to this distinction that this class of foods is considered in
this Section. Because all the varieties of both fish and shell fish are
in many respects similar, the term _sea food_ is often applied to them,
but, as a rule, this term is restricted to designate salt-water products
as distinguished from fresh-water fish.

2. Fish can usually be purchased at a lower price than meat, and for
this reason possesses an economic advantage over it. Besides the price,
the substitution of fish for meat makes for economy in a number of ways
to which consideration is not usually given. These will become clearly
evident when it is remembered that nearly all land animals that furnish
meat live on many agricultural products that might be used for human
food. Then, too, other foods fed to animals, although not actually human
foods, require in their raising the use of soil that might otherwise be
utilized for the raising of food for human beings. This is not true in
the case of fish. They consume the vegetation that grows in lakes,
streams, and the ocean, as well as various kinds of insects, small fish,
etc., which cannot be used as human food and which do not require the
use of the soil. In addition, much of the food that animals, which are
warm-blooded, take into their bodies is required to maintain a constant
temperature above that of their surroundings, so that not all of what
they eat is used in building up the tissues of their bodies. With fish,
however, it is different. As they are cold-blooded and actually receive
heat from their surroundings, they do not require food for bodily
warmth. Practically all that they take into the body is built up into a
supply of flesh that may be used as food for human beings.

3. With fish, as with other foods, some varieties are sought more than
others, the popularity of certain kinds depending on the individual
taste or the preference of the people in a particular locality. Such
popularity, however, is often a disadvantage to the purchaser, because a
large demand for certain varieties has a tendency to cause a rise in
price. The increased price does not indicate that the fish is of more
value to the consumer than some other fish that may be cheaper because
it is less popular, although quite as valuable from a food standpoint.
The preference for particular kinds of fish and the persistent disregard
of others that are edible is for the most part due to prejudice. In
certain localities, one kind of fish may be extremely popular while in
others the same fish may not be used for food at all. Such prejudice
should be overcome, for, as a matter of fact, practically every fish
taken from pure water is fit to eat, in the sense that it furnishes food
and is not injurious to health.

In addition, any edible fish should be eaten in the locality where it is
caught. The transportation of this food is a rather difficult matter,
and, besides, it adds to the cost. It is therefore an excellent plan to
make use of the kind of fish that is most plentiful, as such practice
will insure both better quality and a lower market price.

4. As is well known, fish is an extremely perishable food. Therefore,
when it is caught in quantities too great to be used at one time, it is
preserved in various ways. The preservation methods that have proved to
be the most satisfactory are canning, salting and drying, smoking, and
preserving in various kinds of brine and pickle. As such methods are
usually carried out in the locality where the fish is caught, many
varieties of fish can be conveniently stored for long periods of time
and so distributed as to meet the requirements of the consumer. This
plan enables persons far removed from the Source of supply to procure
fish frequently.

       *       *       *       *       *

COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF FISH

COMPOSITION OF FISH

5. COMPARISON OF FISH WITH MEAT.--In general, the composition of fish is
similar to that of meat, for both of them are high-protein foods.
However, some varieties of fish contain large quantities of fat and
others contain very little of this substance, so the food value of the
different kinds varies greatly. As in the case of meat, fish is lacking
in carbohydrate. Because of the close similarity between these two
foods, fish is a very desirable substitute for meat. In fact, fish is in
some respects a better food than meat, but it cannot be used so
continuously as meat without becoming monotonous; that is to say, a
person will grow tired of fish much more quickly than of most meats. The
similarity between the composition of fish and that of meat has much to
do with regulating the price of these protein foods, which, as has
already been learned, are the highest priced foods on the market.

6. PROTEIN IN FISH.--In fish, as well as in shell fish, a very large
proportion of the food substances present is protein. This proportion
varies with the quantity of water, bone, and refuse that the particular
food contains, and with the physical structure of the food. In fresh
fish, the percentage of this material varies from 6 to 17 per cent. The
structure of fish is very similar to that of meat, as the flesh is
composed of tiny hollow fibers containing extractives, in which are
dissolved mineral salts and various other materials. The quantity of
extractives found in these foods, however, is less than that found in
meat. Fish extracts of any kind, such as clam juice, oyster juice, etc.,
are similar in their composition to any of the extractives of meat,
differing only in the kind and proportions. In addition to the muscle
fibers of fish, which are, of course, composed of protein, fish contains
a small quantity of albumin, just as meat does. It is the protein
material in fish, as well as in shell fish, that is responsible for its
very rapid decomposition.

The application of heat has the same effect on the protein of fish as it
has on that of meat, fowl, and other animal tissues. Consequently, the
same principles of cookery apply to both the retention and the
extraction of flavor.

7. FAT IN FISH.--The percentage of fat in fish varies from less than 1
per cent. in some cases to a trifle more than 14 per cent. in others,
but this high percentage is rare, as the average fish probably does not
exceed from 3 to 6 or 7 per cent. of fat. This variation affects the
total food value proportionately. The varieties of fish that contain the
most fat deteriorate most rapidly and withstand transportation the least
well, so that when these are secured in large quantities they are
usually canned or preserved in some manner. Fish containing a large
amount of fat, such as salmon, turbot, eel, herring, halibut, mackerel,
mullet, butterfish, and lake trout, have a more moist quality than those
which are without fat, such as cod. Therefore, as it is difficult to
cook fish that is lacking in fat and keep it from becoming dry, a fat
fish makes a more palatable food than a lean fish. The fat of fish is
very strongly flavored; consequently, any that cooks out of fish in its
preparation is not suitable for use in the cooking of other foods.

8. CARBOHYDRATE IN FISH.--Like meat, fish does not contain carbohydrate
in any appreciable quantity. In fact, the small amount that is found in
the tissue, and that compares to the glycogen found in animal tissues,
is not present in sufficient quantities to merit consideration.

9. MINERAL MATTER IN FISH.--In fish, mineral matter is quite as
prevalent as in meat. Through a notion that fish contains large
proportions of phosphorus, and because this mineral is also present in
the brain, the idea that fish is a brain food has become widespread. It
has been determined, however, that this belief has no foundation.


FOOD VALUE OF FISH

10. FACTORS DETERMINING FOOD VALUE.--The total food value of fish, as
has been shown, is high or low, varying with the food substances it
contains. Therefore, since, weight for weight, the food value of fat is
much higher than that of protein, it follows that the fish containing
the most fat has the highest food value. Fat and protein, as is well
known, do not serve the same function in the body, but each has its
purpose and is valuable and necessary in the diet. Some varieties of
fish contain fat that is strong in flavor, and from these the fat should
be removed before cooking, especially if the flavor is disagreeable.
This procedure of course reduces the total food value of the fish, but
it should be done if it increases the palatability.

11. RELATIVE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FISH AND MEAT.--When fish and meat are
compared, it will be observed that some kinds of fish have a higher food
value than meat, particularly if the fish contains much fat and the meat
is lean. When the average of each of these foods is compared, however,
meat will be found to have a higher food value than fish. To show how
fish compares with meat and fowl, the composition and food value of
several varieties of each food are given in Table I, which is taken from
a United States government bulletin.


TABLE I

COMPARISON OF COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF FISH AND MEAT

----------------------------------------------------------------
                     |    Composition    |  Total   |Food Value|
                     |-------------------|   Food   | per Pound|
   Edible Portion    | Protein |   Fat   |  Value   |  Due to  |
                     |Per Cent.|Per Cent.|per Pound | Protein  |
                     |         |         | Calories | Calories |
----------------------------------------------------------------
_Fish_:              |         |         |          |          |
  Bass, black........|  20.6   |    1.7  |    443   |    373   |
  Bluefish...........|  19.4   |    1.2  |    401   |    352   |
  Carp...............|  17.4   |    2.6  |    421   |    315   |
  Catfish............|  14.4   |   20.6  |  1,102   |    262   |
  Halibut steak......|  18.6   |    5.2  |    550   |    337   |
  Lake trout.........|  17.8   |    1.0  |    363   |    323   |
  Red snapper........|  19.2   |    1.0  |    389   |    348   |
  Salmon (canned)....|  21.8   |   12.1  |    888   |    396   |
  Whitefish..........|  22.9   |    6.5  |    680   |    415   |
                     |         |         |          |          |
_Meat_:              |         |         |          |          |
  Beef, round,       |         |         |          |          |
    medium fat.......|  20.3   |   13.6  |    895   |    368   |
  Chicken, broilers..|  21.5   |    2.5  |    492   |    390   |
  Fowl...............|  19.3   |   16.3  |  1,016   |    350   |
  Lamb, leg..........|  19.2   |   16.5  |    870   |    348   |
  Pork chops.........|  16.6   |   30.1  |  1,455   |    301   |
----------------------------------------------------------------

12. A study of this table will show that on the whole the percentage of
protein in the various kinds of fish is as much as that in meat, while
in a few instances, it is greater. This proves that so far as the
quantity of protein is concerned, these two foods are equally valuable
in their tissue-forming and tissue-building qualities. It will be seen
also that the percentage of fat in fish varies greatly, some varieties
containing more than meat, but most of them containing less.
Furthermore, the total food value per pound, in calories, is for the
most part greater in meat than in fish, whereas the food value per pound
due to protein is equivalent in most cases, but higher in some of the
fish than in the meat.

13. It must also be remembered that the drying or preserving of fish
does not in any way decrease its food value. In fact, pound for pound,
dried fish, both smoked and salt, contains more nutritive value than
fresh fish, because the water, which decreases the food value of fresh
fish, is driven off in drying. However, when prepared for eating, dried
fish in all probability has more food value than fresh fish, because
water or moisture of some sort must be supplied in its preparation.

14. The method of preparing dried or preserved fish, as well as fresh
fish, has much to do with the food value obtained from it. Just as
nutritive value is lost in the cooking of meat by certain methods, so it
may be lost in the preparation of fish if the proper methods are not
applied. To obtain as much food value from fish as possible, the various
points that are involved in its cookery must be thoroughly understood.
Certain facts concerning the buying of fish must also be kept in mind.
For instance, in canned fish, almost all the bones, skin, and other
inedible parts, except the tails, heads, and fins of very small fish,
have been removed before packing, indicating that practically all the
material purchased is edible. In the case of fresh fish, a large
percentage of what is bought must be wasted in preparation and in
eating, the percentage of waste varying from 5 to 45 per cent.

15. DIGESTIBILITY OF FISH.--The food value of any food is an important
item when its usefulness as a food is taken into account, but of equal
importance is the manner in which the body uses the food; that is,
whether it digests the food with ease or with difficulty. Therefore,
when the value of fish as a food is to be determined, its digestibility
must receive definite consideration. As has already been explained, much
depends on the cooking of the food in question. On the whole, fish is
found to be more easily digested than meat, with the exception perhaps
of a few kinds or certain cuts. That physicians recognize this
characteristic is evidenced by the fact that fish is often used in the
feeding of invalids or sick people when meat is not permitted.

16. The ease with which fish is digested is influenced largely by the
quantity of fat it contains, for this fat, acting in identically the
same way as the fat of meat, has the effect of slowing the digestion
that is carried on in the stomach. It follows, then, that with possibly
one or two exceptions the kinds of fish most easily digested are those
which are lean.

17. In addition to the correct cooking of fish and the presence of fat,
a factor that largely influences the digestibility of this food is the
length of the fibers of the flesh. It will be remembered that the parts
of an animal having long fibers are tougher and less easily digested
than those having short fibers. This applies with equal force in the
case of fish. Its truth is evident when it is known that cod, a lean
fish, is digested with greater difficulty than some of the fat fish
because of the length and toughness of its fibers. This, however, is
comparative, and it must not be thought that fish on the whole is
digested with difficulty.

18. Another factor that influences the digestibility of fish is the
salting of it. Whether fish is salted dry or in brine, the salt hardens
the fibers and tissues. While the salt acts as a preservative in causing
this hardening, it, at the same time, makes the fish preserved in this
manner a little more difficult to digest. This slight difference need
scarcely be considered so far as the normal adult is concerned, but in
case of children or persons whose digestion is not entirely normal its
effect is likely to be felt.


PURCHASE AND CARE OF FISH


TABLE II

NAMES, SEASONS, AND USES OF FRESH FISH

NAME OF FISH       SEASON                  METHOD OF COOKERY
Bass, black....... All the year........... Fried, baked
Bass, sea......... All the year........... Baked, broiled, fried
Bass, striped..... All the year........... Baked, broiled, fried
Bass, lake........ June 1 to January 1.... Baked, broiled, fried
Bluefish.......... May 1 to November 1.... Baked, broiled
Butterfish........ October 1 to May 1..... Fried, sautéd
Carp.............. July 1 to November 1... Baked, broiled, fried
Catfish........... All the year........... Fried, sautéd
Codfish........... All the year........... Boiled, fried, sautéd,
                                             baked, broiled
Eels.............. All the year........... Fried, boiled, baked
Flounder.......... All the year........... Sautéd, fried, baked
Haddock........... All the year........... Steamed, boiled, fried
Halibut........... All the year........... Boiled, fried, creamed
Herring........... October 1 to May 1..... Sautéd, fried, broiled
Kingfish.......... May 1 to November 1.... Boiled, steamed, baked
Mackerel.......... April 1 to October 1... Baked, broiled,
                                             boiled, fried
Perch, fresh...... September 1 to June 1.. Fried, broiled
  water
Pike, or.......... June 1 to January 1.... Fried, broiled, baked
  pickerel, fresh
  water
Porgies, salt..... June 15 to October 15.. Fried, sautéd
  water
Red snapper....... October 1 to April 1... Boiled, steamed
Salmon, Kennebec.. June 1 to October 1.... Broiled, baked, boiled
Salmon, Oregon.... October 1 to June 1.... Broiled, baked, boiled
Shad.............. January 1 to June 1.... Baked, broiled, fried
Shad roe.......... January 1 to June 1.... Broiled, fried
Sheepshead........ June 1 to September 15. Boiled, fried
Smelts............ August 15 to April 15.. Fried, sautéd
Sole, English..... November 1 to May 1.... Baked, broiled, fried
Sunfish........... May 1 to December 1.... Fried, sautéd
Trout, fresh...... April 1 to September 1. Baked, broiled, fried,
  water                                      boiled, sautéd
Weakfish, or...... May 15 to October 15... Baked, broiled
  sea trout
Whitebait......... May 1 to April 1....... Fried, sautéd
Whitefish,........ November 1 to March 1.. Baked, fried, sautéd,
  fresh water                                broiled

19. PURCHASE OF FISH.--The housewife has much to do with the market
price of fish and the varieties that are offered for sale, for these are
governed by the demand created by her. The fisherman's catch depends on
weather conditions, the season, and other uncertain factors. If the
kinds of fish he secures are not what the housewife demands, they either
will not be sent to market or will go begging on the market for want of
purchasers. Such a state of affairs should not exist, and it would not
if every housewife were to buy the kind of fish that is plentiful in her
home market. So that she may become familiar with the varieties that the
market affords, she should carefully study Tables II and III, which give
the names, seasons, and uses of both fresh fish and salt and smoked
fish. With the information given in these tables well in mind, she will
be able not only to select the kind she wants, but to cooperate better
with dealers.

TABLE III

NAMES, SEASONS, AND USES OF SALT AND SMOKED FISH

NAME OF FISH        SEASON         METHOD OF COOKERY

                     SALT FISH

Anchovies........ All the year.. Served as a relish, stuffed
                                   with various highly
                                   seasoned mixtures, used
                                   as flavor for sauce

Codfish, dried... All the year.. Creamed, balls

Herring, pickled. All the year.. Sautéd

Mackerel......... All the year.. Broiled, fried, sautéd

Salmon, salt..... All the year.. Fried, broiled, boiled

                    SMOKED FISH

Haddock, or...... October 15 to. Broiled, baked, creamed
  finnan haddie     April 1

Halibut.......... October 1 to.. Baked, broiled, fried
                    April 1
Herring.......... All the year.. Served as a relish
                                   without cooking

Mackerel......... October 1 to.. Baked, boiled, fried
                    November 1

Smoked salmon.... All the year.. Baked, boiled, fried

Shad............. October 1 to.. Baked, boiled, fried
                    May 1

Sturgeon......... October 1 to.. Baked, boiled, fried
                    May 1

Whitefish........ October 1 to.. Baked, boiled, fried
                    May 1

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

20. Another point to be considered in the purchase of fish is the size.
Some fish, such as halibut and salmon, are so large that they must
usually be cut into slices or steaks to permit the housewife to purchase
the quantity she requires for immediate use. Other fish are of such size
that one is sufficient for a meal, and others are so small that several
must be purchased to meet the requirements. An idea or the difference in
the size of fish can be gained from Figs. 1 and 2. The larger fish in
Fig. 1 is a medium-sized whitefish and the smaller one is a smelt. Fish
about the size of smelts lend themselves readily to frying and sautéing,
whereas the larger kinds, like whitefish, may be prepared to better
advantage by baking either with or without suitable stuffing. The larger
fish in Fig. 2 is a carp and the smaller one is a pike. Much use is made
of pike, but carp has been more shunned than sought after. However, when
carp is properly cooked, it is a very palatable food, and, besides, it
possesses high food value.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

21. In the purchase of fish, the housewife, provided she is not obliged
to have fish for a particular day, will do well also to get away from
the one-day-a-week purchasing of fish; that is, if she is not obliged to
serve fish on Friday, she should endeavor to serve it on some other day.
Even twice a week is not too often. If such a plan were followed out,
fishermen would be able to market their catch when it is procured and
the waste of fish or the necessity for keeping it until a particular day
would be overcome.

22. Another way in which the housewife can help herself in the selection
of fish is to become familiar with all the varieties of edible fish
caught in or near her community. When she has done this, it will be a
splendid plan for her to give those with which she is unfamiliar a
trial. She will be surprised at the many excellent varieties that are
obtained in her locality and consequently come to her fresher than fish
that has to be shipped long distances.

23. FRESHNESS OF FISH.--In the purchase of fish, the housewife should
not permit herself to be influenced by any prejudice she may have as to
the name or the appearance of the fish. However, too much attention
cannot be paid to its freshness.

Several tests can be applied to fish to determine whether or not it is
fresh; therefore, when a housewife is in doubt, she should make an
effort to apply them. Fish should not give off any offensive odor. The
eyes should be bright and clear, not dull nor sunken. The gills should
have a bright-red color, and there should be no blubber showing. The
flesh should be so firm that no dent will be made when it is touched
with the finger. Fish may also be tested for freshness by placing it in
a pan of water; if it sinks, it may be known to be fresh, but if it
floats it is not fit for use.

24. CARE OF FISH IN THE HOME.--If fish is purchased in good condition,
and every effort should be made to see that it is, the responsibility of
its care in the home until it is presented to the family as a cooked
dish rests on the housewife. If, upon reaching the housewife, it has not
been cleaned, it should be cleaned at once. In case it has been cleaned
either by the fish dealer or the housewife and cannot be cooked at once,
it should be looked over carefully, immediately washed in cold water,
salted slightly inside and out, placed in a covered enamel or porcelain
dish, and then put where it will keep as cold as possible. If a
refrigerator is used, the fish should be put in the compartment from
which odors cannot be carried to foods in the other compartments. In
cold weather, an excellent plan is to put the fish out of doors instead
of in the refrigerator, for there it will remain sufficiently cold
without the use of ice. However, the best and safest way is to cook the
fish at once, so that storing it for any length of time after its
delivery will not be necessary.

Salt and smoked fish do not, of course, require the same care as fresh
fish. However, as many of these varieties are strong in flavor, it is
well to weaken their flavor before cooking them by soaking them or, if
possible, by parboiling them.


PREPARATION OF FISH FOR COOKING

25. CLEANING FISH.--Fish is usually prepared for cooking at the market
where it is purchased, but frequently a fish comes into the home just as
it has been caught. In order to prepare such a fish properly for
cooking, the housewife must understand how to clean it. The various
steps in cleaning fish are illustrated in Figs. 3 to 6. The first step
consists in removing the scales. To do this, place the fish on its side,
as shown in Fig. 3, grasp it firmly by the tail, and [Illustration: FIG.
3] then with the cutting edge of a knife, preferably a dull one, scrape
off the scales by quick motions of the knife toward the head of the
fish. When one side has been scraped clean, or _scaled_, as this
operation is called, turn the fish over and scale the other side.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

With the fish scaled, proceed to remove the entrails. As shown in Fig.
4, cut a slit in the belly from the head end to the vent, using a sharp
knife. Run the opening up well toward the head, as Fig. 5 shows, and
then through the opening formed draw out the entrails with the fingers.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

If the head is to be removed, it should be cut off at this time. When a
fish is to be baked or prepared in some other way in which the head may
be retained, it is allowed to remain on, but it is kept more for an
ornament than for any other reason. To remove the head, slip a sharp
knife under the gills as far as possible, as Fig. 6 shows, and then cut
it off in such a way as not to remove with it any of the body of
the fish.

Whether the head is removed or not, make sure that the cavity formed by
taking out the entrails is perfectly clean. Then wash the fish with cold
water and, if desired, cut off the fins and tail, although this is not
usually done. The fish, which is now properly prepared, may be cooked at
once or placed in the refrigerator until time for cooking.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

26. BONING FISH.--In the preparation of some kinds of fish, it is often
desired to bone the fish; that is, to remove the backbone and the ribs.
Figs. 7 to 10 show the various steps in the process of boning. After the
fish has been thoroughly cleaned, insert a sharp-pointed knife in the
back where it is cut from the head, as shown in Fig. 7, and loosen the
backbone at this place. Then, as in Fig. 8, slip the knife along the
ribs away from the backbone on both sides. After getting the bone well
loosened at the end, cut it from the flesh all the way down to the tail,
as shown in Fig. 9. When thus separated from the flesh, the backbone and
the ribs, which comprise practically all the bones in a fish, may be
lifted out intact, as is shown in Fig. 10.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

27. SKINNING FISH.--Some kinds of fish, especially those having no
scales, such as flounder, catfish, and eels, are made more palatable by
being skinned. To skin a fish, cut a narrow strip of the skin along the
spine from the head to the tail, as shown in Fig. 11. At this opening,
loosen the skin on one side where it is fastened to the bony part of the
fish and then, as in Fig. 12, draw it off around toward the belly,
working carefully so as not to tear the flesh. Sometimes it is a good
plan to use a knife for this purpose, working the skin loose from the
flesh with the knife and at the same time pulling the skin with the
other hand. After removing the skin from one side, turn the fish and
take off the skin from the other side in the same way. Care should be
taken to clean the fish properly before attempting to skin it. If the
fish is frozen, it should first be thawed in cold water.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

28. FILLETING FISH.--As many recipes require fish to be cut into
_fillets_, that is, thick, flat slices from which the bone is removed,
it is well for the housewife to understand just how to accomplish this
part of the preparation. Figs. 13 to 15 show the filleting of a
flounder. While this process varies somewhat in the different varieties
of fish, the usual steps are the ones here outlined. After thoroughly
cleaning the flounder and removing the skin, lay the fish out flat and
cut the flesh down through the center from the head end to the tail, as
shown in Fig. 13. Then, with a knife, work each half of the flesh loose
from the bones, as in Fig. 14. With these two pieces removed, turn the
fish over, cut the flesh down through the center, and separate it from
the bones in the same manner as before. If a meat board is on hand, it
is a good plan to place the fish on such a board before removing the
flesh. At the end of the filleting process, the flounder should appear
as shown in Fig. 15, the long, narrow strips on the right being the
flesh and that remaining on the board being the bones intact. The strips
thus produced may be cut into pieces of any preferred size.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

       *       *       *       *       *

RECIPES FOR FISH AND FISH ACCOMPANIMENTS

METHODS OF COOKING FISH

29. As Tables II and III show, practically all methods of cookery are
applicable in the cooking of fish. For instance, fish may be boiled,
steamed, baked, fried, broiled, sautéd, and, in addition, used for
various kinds of bisques, chowders, and numerous other made dishes. The
effect of these different methods is exactly the same on fish as on
meat, since the two foods are the same in general construction. The
cookery method to select depends largely on the size, kind, quality, and
flavor of the fish. Just as an old chicken with well-developed muscles
is not suitable for broiling, so a very large fish should not be broiled
unless it can be cut into slices, steaks, or thin pieces. Cook cutting
fish with knife. Such a fish is usually either stuffed and baked or
baked without stuffing, but when it is cut into slices, the slices may
be sautéd, fried, broiled, or steamed.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

[Illustration: FIG. 15 Fish on cutting board]

Some varieties of fish are more or less tasteless. These should be
prepared by a cookery method that will improve their flavor, or if the
cooking fails to add flavor, a highly seasoned or highly flavored sauce
should be served with them. The acid of vinegar or lemon seems to assist
in bringing out the flavor of fish, so when a sauce is not used, a slice
of lemon is often served with the fish.


RECIPES FOR FISH SAUCES AND STUFFINGS

30. As many of the recipes for fish call for sauce and stuffing, recipes
for these accompaniments are taken up before the methods of cooking fish
are considered. This plan will make it possible for the beginner to
become thoroughly familiar with these accompaniments and thus be better
prepared to carry out the recipes for cooking fish.

31. SAUCES FOR FISH.--Sauces are generally served with fish to improve
their flavor and increase their nutritive value. Some kinds of fish,
such as salmon, shad, butterfish, Spanish mackerel, etc., contain more
than 6 per cent. of fat, but as many of the fish that are used for food
contain less than this, they are somewhat dry and are improved
considerably by the addition of a well-seasoned and highly flavored
sauce. Then, too, some fish contain very few extractives, which, when
present, as has been learned, are the source of flavor in food. As some
of the methods of cooking, boiling in particular, dissolve the few
extractives that fish contain and cause the loss of much of the
nutritive material, it becomes almost necessary to serve a sauce with
fish so prepared, if a tasty dish is to be the result.

32. The sauces that may be used with fish are numerous, and the one to
select depends somewhat on the cookery method employed and the
preference of those to whom the fish is served. Among the recipes that
follow will be found sauces suitable for any method that may be used in
the preparation of fish. A little experience with them will enable the
housewife to determine the ones that are most satisfactory as to both
flavor and nutritive value for the different varieties of fish she uses
and the methods of cookery she employs.

LEMON CREAM SAUCE

2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 c. thin cream
Salt and pepper
Juice of 1 lemon or 1 Tb. vinegar

Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in the flour, and continue stirring
until the two are well mixed. Add to this the thin cream and stir until
the mixture is thick and boils. Season with salt, pepper, and the juice
of the lemon or the vinegar.

SPANISH SAUCE

2 Tb. butter
1 slice of onion
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 c. milk
1/4 c. tomato purée
1/4 c. chopped pimiento

Brown the butter with the onion, add the flour, salt, and pepper, and
stir until well blended. Add the milk and allow the mixture to cook
until it thickens. To this add the tomato and pimiento. Heat thoroughly
and serve.

NUT SAUCE

1 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
2 Tb. peanut butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 c. meat stock

Melt the butter and add the flour and peanut butter. When they are well
mixed, allow them to brown slightly. Add the salt and pepper to this
mixture and pour into it the meat stock. Bring to the boiling point
and serve.

HORSERADISH SAUCE

1/2 c. cream
1/4 c. boiled salad dressing
2 Tb. grated horseradish
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4  tsp. paprika
1/4 tsp. mustard

Whip the cream until stiff; then add the salad dressing, horseradish,
salt, paprika, and mustard. When well blended, the sauce is ready
to serve.

EGG SAUCE

2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
3/4 c. milk
/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. vinegar
1 egg
1 Tb. chopped parsley

Melt the butter, add the flour, and stir until well blended. Add the
milk, salt, and pepper, and cook until the mixture thickens. To this add
the vinegar, the egg chopped fine, and the chopped parsley. Heat
thoroughly and serve.

TOMATO SAUCE

2 c. tomato purée
1 small onion, sliced
1 bay leaf
6 cloves
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Strain stewed tomato to make the purée. Put this over the fire in a
saucepan with the sliced onion, the bay leaf, and the cloves. Cook
slowly for about 10 minutes. Strain to remove the onion, bay leaf, and
cloves. Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, and pepper, and into this
pour the hot tomato. Cook until it thickens and serve.

MUSHROOM SAUCE

2 Tb. butter
1 slice of carrot
1 slice of onion
Sprig of parsley
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. flour
1 c. meat stock
1/2 c. mushrooms
2 tsp. lemon juice

Put the butter in a frying pan with the carrot, onion, parsley, salt,
and pepper, and cook together until brown. Remove the onion, carrot, and
parsley. Stir in the flour, brown it slightly, and then add the meat
stock. Cook together until thickened. Just before removing from the
fire, add the mushrooms, chopped into fine pieces, and the lemon juice.
Allow it to heat thoroughly and then serve.

DRAWN-BUTTER SAUCE

1/4 c. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1-1/2 c. hot water
2 hard-cooked eggs

Melt the butter, and add the flour, salt, and pepper. Pour into this the
hot water, and cook until the mixture thickens. Slice the eggs into
1/4-inch slices and add these to the sauce just before removing from
the stove.

33. STUFFING FOR FISH.--As has been mentioned, fish that is to be baked
is often stuffed before it is put into the oven. The stuffing not only
helps to preserve the shape of the fish, but also provides a means of
extending the flavor of the fish to a starchy food, for bread or cracker
crumbs are used in the preparation of most stuffings. Three recipes for
fish stuffing are here given, the first being made of bread crumbs and
having hot water for the liquid, the second of cracker crumbs and having
milk for the liquid, and the third of bread crumbs and having stewed
tomato for the liquid.

FISH STUFFING No. 1

1/4 c. butter
1/2 c. hot water
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 tsp. onion juice
1 Tb. chopped parsley
2 c. fine bread crumbs

Melt the butter in the hot water, add the salt, pepper, onion juice, and
parsley, and pour over the crumbs. Mix thoroughly and use to stuff
the fish.

FISH STUFFING No. 2

1/2 c. milk
2 c. cracker crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/4 c. melted butter
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1 egg

Warm the milk and add it to the crumbs, together with the salt, pepper,
melted butter, and parsley. To this mixture, add the beaten egg. When
well mixed, use as stuffing for fish.

FISH STUFFING No. 3

2 Tb. butter
1 Tb. finely chopped onion
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 Tb. chopped sour pickles
1/2 c. stewed tomato
2 c. stale bread crumbs

Melt the butter and add the onion, parsley, salt, pepper, pickles, and
tomato. Pour this mixture over the crumbs, mix all thoroughly, and use
to stuff the fish. If the dressing seems to require more liquid than the
stewed tomato, add a little water.


RECIPES FOR FRESH FISH

34. BOILED FISH.--Boiling extracts flavor and, to some extent, nutriment
from the food to which this cookery method is applied. Therefore, unless
the fish to be cooked is one that has a very strong flavor and that will
be improved by the loss of flavor, it should not be boiled. Much care
should be exercised in boiling fish, because the meat is usually so
tender that it is likely to boil to pieces or to fall apart.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

35. A utensil in which fish can be boiled or steamed very satisfactorily
is shown in Fig. 16. This _fish boiler_, as it is called, is a long,
narrow, deep pan with a cover and a rack on which the fish is placed.
Attached to each end of the rack is an upright strip, or handle, that
permits the rack containing the fish to be lifted out of the pan and the
fish thus removed without breaking. To assist further in holding the
fish together while it is cooking, a piece of gauze or cheesecloth may
be wrapped around the fish before it is put into the pan.

36. When a fish is to be boiled, clean it and, if desired, remove the
head. Pour sufficient boiling water to cover the fish well into the
vessel in which it is to be cooked, and add salt in the proportion of 1
teaspoonful to each quart of water. Tie the fish in a strip of
cheesecloth or gauze if necessary, and lower it into the vessel of
slowly boiling water. Allow the fish to boil until it may be easily
pierced with a fork; then take it out of the water and remove the cloth,
provided one is used. Serve with a well-seasoned sauce, such as lemon
cream, horseradish, etc.

37. BOILED COD.--A fish that lends itself well to boiling is fresh cod.
In fact, codfish prepared according to this method and served with a
sauce makes a very appetizing dish.

Scale, clean, and skin a fresh cod and wrap it in a single layer of
gauze or cheesecloth. Place it in a kettle or a pan of freshly boiling
water to which has been added 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of
water. Boil until the fish may be easily pierced with a fork, take from
the water, and remove the gauze or cheesecloth carefully so as to keep
the fish intact. Serve with sauce and slices of lemon.

38. STEAMED FISH.--The preparation of fish by steaming is practically
the same as that by boiling, and produces a dish similar to boiled fish.
The only difference is that steamed fish is suspended over the water and
is cooked by the steam that rises instead of being cooked directly in
the water. Because the fish is not surrounded by water, it does not lose
its nutriment and flavor so readily as does boiled fish.

If fish is to be cooked by steaming, first clean it thoroughly. Wrap in
a strip of gauze or cheesecloth and place in a steamer. Steam until
tender, and then remove the cloth and place the fish on a platter. As
steaming does not add flavor, it is usually necessary to supply flavor
to fish cooked in this way by adding a sauce of some kind.

39. BROILED FISH.--The best way in which to cook small fish, thin strips
of fish, or even good-sized fish that are comparatively thin when they
are split open is to broil them. Since in this method of cooking the
flavor is entirely retained, it is especially desirable for any fish of
delicate flavor.

To broil fish, sear them quickly over a very hot fire and then cook them
more slowly until they are done, turning frequently to prevent burning.
As most fish, and particularly the small ones used for broiling, contain
almost no fat, it is necessary to supply fat for successful broiling and
improvement of flavor. It is difficult to add fat to the fish while it
is broiling, so, as a rule, the fat is spread over the surface of the
fish after it has been removed from the broiler. The fat may consist of
broiled strips of bacon or salt pork, or it may be merely melted butter
or other fat.

40. BROILED SCROD WITH POTATO BORDER.--Young cod that is split down the
back and that has had the backbone removed with the exception of a small
portion near the tail is known as _scrod_. Such fish is nearly always
broiled, it may be served plain, but it is much more attractive when
potatoes are combined with it in the form of an artistic border.

To prepare this dish, broil the scrod according to the directions given
in Art. 39. Then place it on a hot platter and spread butter over it.
Boil the desired number of potatoes until they are tender, and then
force them through a ricer or mash them until they are perfectly fine.
Season with salt, pepper, and butter, and add sufficient milk to make a
paste that is a trifle stiffer than for mashed potatoes. If desired, raw
eggs may also be beaten into the potatoes to serve as a part of the
moisture. Fill a pastry bag with the potatoes thus prepared and press
them through a rosette tube in any desired design on the platter around
the fish. Bake in a hot oven until the potatoes are thoroughly heated
and are browned slightly on the top.

41. BROILED FRESH MACKEREL.--Probably no fish lends itself better to
broiling than fresh mackerel, as the flesh of this fish is tender and
contains sufficient fat to have a good flavor. To improve the flavor,
however, strips of bacon are usually placed over the fish and allowed to
broil with it.

Clean and skin a fresh mackerel. Place the fish thus prepared in a
broiler, and broil first on one side and then on the other. When seared
all over, place strips of bacon over the fish and continue to broil
until it is done. Remove from the broiler, season with salt and pepper,
and serve.

42. BROILED SHAD ROE.--The mass of eggs found in shad, as shown in Fig.
17, is known as the _roe_ of shad. Roe may be purchased separately, when
it is found in the markets from January 1 to June 1, or it may be
procured from the fish itself. It makes a delicious dish when broiled,
especially when it is rolled in fat and bread crumbs.

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

Wash the roe that is to be used and dry it carefully between towels.
Roll it in bacon fat or melted butter and then in fine crumbs. Place in
a broiler, broil until completely done on one side, turn and then broil
until entirely cooked on the other side. Remove from the broiler and
pour melted butter over each piece. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and
serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

43. BAKED FISH.--Good-sized fish, that is, fish weighing 4 or 5 pounds,
are usually baked. When prepared by this method, fish are very
satisfactory if they are spread out on a pan, flesh side up, and baked
in a very hot oven with sufficient fat to flavor them well. A fish of
large size, however, is especially delicious if its cavity is filled
with a stuffing before it is baked.

When a fish is to be stuffed, any desired stuffing is prepared and then
filled into the fish in the manner shown in Fig. 18. With the cavity
well filled, the edges of the fish are drawn together over the stuffing
and sewed with a coarse needle and thread, as Fig. 19 shows.

Whether the fish is stuffed or not, the same principles apply in its
baking as apply in the roasting of meat; that is, the heat of a quick,
hot oven sears the flesh, keeps in the juices, and prevents the loss of
flavor, while that of a slow oven causes the loss of much of the flavor
and moisture and produces a less tender dish.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

44. Often, in the baking of fish, it is necessary to add fat. This may
be done by putting fat of some kind into the pan with the fish, by
spreading strips of bacon over the fish, or by larding it. In the dry
varieties of fish, larding, which is illustrated in Fig. 20, proves very
satisfactory, for it supplies the substance in which the fish is most
lacking. As will be observed, larding is done by inserting strips of
bacon or salt pork that are about 3 inches long and 1/4 inch thick into
gashes cut into the sides of the fish.

[Illustration: FIG. 20]

45. BAKED HADDOCK.--As haddock is a good-sized fish, it is an especially
suitable one for baking. However, it is a dry fish, so fat should be
added to it to improve its flavor. Any of the methods suggested in Art.
44 may be used to supply the fat that this fish needs.

When haddock is to be baked, select a 4 or 5-pound fish, clean it
thoroughly, boning it if desired, and sprinkle it inside and out with
salt. Fill the cavity with any desired stuffing and sew up. Place in a
dripping pan, and add some bacon fat or a piece of salt pork, or place
several slices of bacon around it. Bake in a hot oven for about 1 hour.
After it has been in the oven for about 15 minutes, baste with the fat
that will be found in the bottom of the pan and continue to baste every
10 minutes until the fish is done. Remove from the pan to a platter,
garnish with parsley and slices of broiled bacon, and serve with any
desired sauce.

46. BAKED HALIBUT.--Because of its size, halibut is cut into slices and
sold in the form of steaks. It is probably one of the most economical
varieties of fish to buy, for very little bone is contained in a slice
and the money that the housewife expends goes for almost solid meat.
Halibut slices are often sautéd, but they make a delicious dish when
baked with tomatoes and flavored with onion, lemon, and bay leaf, as
described in the accompanying recipe.

BAKED HALIBUT
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. tomatoes
Few slices onion
1 bay leaf
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 thin slices bacon
1 Tb. flour
2 lb. halibut steak

Heat the tomatoes, onion, and bay leaf in water. Add the salt and pepper
and cook for a few minutes. Cut the bacon into small squares, try it out
in a pan, and into this fat stir the flour. Pour this into the hot
mixture, remove the bay leaf, and cook until the mixture thickens. Put
the steaks into a baking dish, pour the sauce over them, and bake in a
slow oven for about 45 minutes. Remove with the sauce to a hot platter
and serve.

47. BAKED FILLETS OF WHITEFISH.--When whitefish of medium size can be
secured, it is very often stuffed and baked whole, but variety can be
had by cutting it into fillets before baking it. Besides producing a
delicious dish, this method of preparation eliminates carving at the
table, for the pieces can be cut the desired size for serving.

Prepare fillets of whitefish according to the directions for filleting
fish in Art. 28. Sprinkle each one with salt and pepper, and dip it
first into beaten egg and then into bread crumbs. Brown some butter in a
pan, place the fish into it, and set the pan in a hot oven. Bake until
the fillets are a light brown, or about 30 minutes. Remove to a hot
dish, garnish with parsley and serve with any desired sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 21]

48. FILLET OF FLOUNDER.--In appearance, flounder is not so attractive as
many other fish, but it is a source of excellent flesh and is therefore
much used. A very appetizing way in which to prepare flounder is to
fillet it and prepare it according to the accompanying recipe, when it
will appear as in Fig. 21.

Secure a flounder and fillet it in the manner explained in Art. 28. Cut
each fillet into halves, making eight pieces from one flounder. Cut
small strips of salt pork or bacon, roll the pieces of flounder around
these, and fasten with a toothpick. Place in a baking dish with a small
quantity of water, and bake in a hot oven until a good brown. Serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 22]

49. PLANKED FISH.--Like planked steak, planked fish, which is
illustrated in Fig. 22, is a dish that appeals to the eye and pleases
the taste. The fish is baked on the plank and then surrounded with a
border of potatoes, the fish and potatoes making an excellent food.

To prepare planked fish, thoroughly clean and bone a medium-size
whitefish, shad, haddock, or any desired fish. Grease a plank and place
the fish on it. Lay some strips of bacon across the top of the fish,
place in a hot oven, and bake for about 30 minutes or a little longer if
necessary. Boil potatoes and prepare them for piping by mashing them,
using 4 tablespoonfuls of milk, 1 tablespoonful of butter, and one egg
to each 2 cupfuls of potato. Then, with a rosette pastry tube, pipe a
border of potatoes around the edge of the plank, so that it will appear
as in Fig. 22. Likewise, pipe rosettes of potatoes on the strips of
bacon placed on top of the fish. Then replace the plank with the fish
and potatoes in the oven, and bake until the potatoes are brown. Garnish
with parsley and serve.

50. FRIED FISH.--Very small fish or slices of larger fish are often
fried in deep fat. When they are prepared in this way, they are first
dipped into beaten egg and then into crumbs or corn meal to form a
coating that will cling to their surface. Coated with such a material,
they are fried in deep fat until the surface is nicely browned. After
being removed from the fat, they should be drained well before serving.

51. FRIED PERCH.--When fried in deep fat, perch is found to be very
appetizing. To prepare it in this way, secure a perch and scale and
clean it. Cut it crosswise into 2-inch strips, roll each piece in flour,
and fry in deep fat until nicely browned. Serve hot with lemon or with a
sauce of some kind.

52. FRIED EEL.--If an appetizing way to cook eel is desired, it will be
found advisable to fry it in deep fat. When it is to be cooked in this
way, skin and clean the eel and cut it into thick slices. Pour some
vinegar over the slices, sprinkle them with salt and pepper, and allow
them to stand for several hours. Remove the pieces from the vinegar, dip
each one into slightly beaten egg and then into flour, and fry in deep
fat until well browned. Serve plain or with a sauce.

53. SAUTÉD FISH.--Without doubt, the most popular way to prepare fish is
to sauté them. This method may be applied to practically the same kinds
of fish that are fried or broiled, and it is especially desirable for
the more tasteless varieties. It consists in browning the fish well in a
small quantity of fat, first on one side and then on the other. If fat
of good flavor is used, such as bacon or ham fat, the flavor of the
fish will be very much improved. Before sautéing, the fish or pieces of
fish are often dipped into slightly beaten egg and then rolled in flour,
very fine cracker crumbs, or corn meal, or the egg is omitted and they
are merely covered with the dry, starchy material. The effect of this
method of cooking is very similar to that of deep-fat frying, except
that the outside tissues are apt to become, very hard from the
application of the hot fat because of the coating that is generally
used. Since most fish breaks very easily, it is necessary that it be
handled carefully in this method in order that the pieces may be
kept whole.

[Illustration: FIG. 23]

54. SAUTÉD SMELTS.--To be most satisfactory, smelts are generally
sautéd, as shown in Fig. 23. Fish of this kind are prepared for cooking
by cutting off the heads and removing the entrails through the opening
thus made; or, if it is desired to leave the heads on, the entrails may
be removed through the gill or a small slit cut below the mouth. At any
rate, these fish are not cut open as are most other fish.

With the fish thus prepared, roll them in fine cracker crumbs and sauté
them in melted butter until they are nicely browned. Serve with
slices of lemon.

55. SAUTÉD HALIBUT STEAK.--Slices of halibut, when firm in texture and
cut about 3/4 inch thick, lend themselves very well to sautéing. Secure
the required number of such slices and sprinkle each with salt and
pepper. Then spread melted butter over each steak, and roll it in fine
crumbs. Place fat in a frying pan, allow it to become hot, and sauté the
halibut in this until well browned.

56. SAUTÉD PICKEREL.--A variety of fresh-water fish that finds favor
with most persons is pickerel. When this fish is to be sautéd, scale
and clean it and cut it crosswise into 2-inch strips. Then roll each
piece in flour, sprinkle it with salt and pepper, and sauté the slices
in hot fat. When one side is sufficiently brown, turn and brown on the
other side.

57. STEWED FISH.--Like boiling, stewing extracts flavor and nutriment
from fish. The process differs, however, in that the fish is cooked
gently by simmering. This cookery method is employed for fish that is
inclined to be tough. Usually, vegetables, such as carrots and onions,
are cooked with the fish in order to impart flavor. To prevent the fish
from falling apart, it may be wrapped in cheesecloth or gauze.

58. STEWED FRESH HERRING.--When fresh herring can be obtained, it can be
made into a delicious dish by stewing it with onions, parsley, and
carrots. In this method of preparation, the herring should not be
permitted to stew rapidly; it will become more tender if it simmers
gently. As herring are rather small fish, weighing only about 1/2 pound,
it will usually be necessary to obtain more than one for a meal.

Clean the required number of fresh herring, place them in a saucepan,
and sprinkle them with salt and pepper. Brown some slices of onion in
butter, and add the same number of slices of carrots and a generous
quantity of parsley. Add enough boiling water to these vegetables to
cover them and the fish, and pour both over the fish. Place all on the
fire and simmer gently until the fish is tender. Remove the fish from
the water and serve. The vegetables are used merely to add flavor, and
they will have practically boiled away by the time the fish is cooked.

59. STEWED EEL.--Eel is delicious when stewed. When allowed to simmer
slowly with several slices of onion and a little parsley, it becomes
both tasty and tender.

Skin and clean the eel that is to be stewed, remove all the fat, and cut
into pieces about 2 inches long. Season well with salt and pepper and
place in a saucepan with several slices of onion, 1 tablespoonful of
chopped parsley, and 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Add enough cold water
to cover well, and allow the eel to simmer gently until it is tender
enough to be pierced with a fork. Remove from the water and serve hot.


RECIPES FOR SALT AND SMOKED FISH

60. PLACE OF SALT AND SMOKED FISH IN THE DIET.--In regions where fresh
fish cannot be obtained or in seasons when they are scarce everywhere,
the housewife will do well to use salt and smoked fish. These varieties
of fish not only will give her a chance to vary the diet, but will
enable her to provide at a more economical price, food that, pound for
pound, contains more nutriment than the same fish when fresh. While some
of the varieties of smoked and salt fish may not be obtainable in all
communities, the housewife will do much toward bringing the supply to
her community by requesting them from the dealer. When a dealer knows
that there is a demand for certain kinds, he will make an effort to
secure the varieties wanted.

61. FRESHENING SALT AND SMOKED FISH.--The cooking of salt and smoked
fish is not a difficult matter, but it always involves the freshening of
the fish before any cooking method can be applied. This consists in
placing the fish in a large quantity of water and allowing it to stand
until enough of the salt has been extracted to suit the taste. Some
kinds of fish are so salty that they require considerable soaking,
whereas others require only a little freshening. However, it is usually
advisable to change the water several times. If it is desired to hasten
the extraction of the salt, the fish should be raised above the bottom
of the vessel by means of a wire rack or several clean sticks. In the
case of very thick fish, several gashes may be cut into the flesh to
permit the salt to pass out more readily.

62. CREAMED CODFISH.--Since codfish is a rather dry fish, containing
little fat, it is usually combined with some other food to make it more
appetizing. In the case of creamed codfish, the cream sauce supplies the
food substances in which the fish is lacking and at the same time
provides a very palatable dish. When codfish is prepared in this way,
boiled potatoes are usually served with it.

To make creamed codfish, freshen the required amount of codfish by
pouring lukewarm water over it. Shred the fish by breaking it into small
pieces with the fingers. Pour off the water, add fresh warm water, and
allow the fish to stand until it is not too salty. When it is
sufficiently freshened, drain off all the water. Melt a little butter in
a frying pan, add the fish, and sauté until slightly browned. Make a
medium white sauce and pour it over the codfish. Serve hot with
boiled potatoes.

63. CODFISH BALLS.--Another excellent way in which to serve codfish is
to combine it with mashed potatoes, make these into balls, and fry them
in deep fat. These give variety to meals and also afford an opportunity
to serve a nutritious food.

Freshen the codfish as explained in Art. 61, and then mince it very
fine. Add an equal amount of freshly cooked hot potato that has been put
through a potato ricer or mashed fine. Mix thoroughly and, if necessary,
season with salt and pepper. Shape into balls and fry in deep fat. Drain
well and serve hot.

64. SAUTÉD SALT MACKEREL.--When an extremely tasty dish that will afford
a change from the usual daily routine of meals is desired, sautéd salt
mackerel will be found very satisfactory.

Freshen salt mackerel that is to be sautéd by putting it into a saucepan
and covering it with cold water. Place this over the fire, and allow the
water to heat to almost the boiling point. Pour off the water, and sauté
the fish in butter or other fat until nicely browned. If desired, pour a
small amount of thin cream over the mackerel just before removing it
from the pan, allow this to heat, and serve it as a sauce with
the mackerel.

65. BAKED FINNAN HADDIE.--When haddock is cured by smoking, it is known
as _finnan haddie_. As fish of this kind has considerable thick flesh,
it is very good for baking. Other methods of cookery may, of course, be
applied to it, but none is more satisfactory than baking.

To bake a finnan haddie, wash it in warm water and put it to soak in
fresh warm water. After it has soaked for 1/2 hour, allow it to come
gradually to nearly the boiling point and then pour off the water. Place
the fish in a baking pan, add a piece of butter, sprinkle with pepper,
and pour a little water over it. Bake in a hot oven until it is nicely
browned. Serve hot.

66. CREAMED FINNAN HADDIE.--The flavor of finnan haddie is such that
this fish becomes very appetizing when prepared with a cream sauce. If,
after combining the sauce with the fish, the fish is baked in the oven,
an especially palatable dish is the result.

To prepare creamed finnan haddie, freshen the fish and shred it into
small pieces. Then measure the fish, put it into a baking dish, and
pour an equal amount of white sauce over it. Sprinkle generously with
crumbs and bake in a hot oven until the crumbs are browned. Serve hot.

67. BOILED SALMON.--When smoked salmon can be secured, it makes a
splendid fish for boiling. If it is cooked until tender and then served
with a well-seasoned sauce, it will find favor with most persons.

Freshen smoked salmon in warm water as much as seems necessary,
remembering that the cooking to which it will be subjected will remove a
large amount of the superfluous salt. Cover the salmon with hot water,
and simmer slowly until it becomes tender. Remove from the water, pour a
little melted butter over it, and serve with any desired sauce.


RECIPES FOR CANNED FISH

68. CANNED FISH IN THE DIET.--As a rule, canned fish is a comparatively
cheap food and there is no reason why the economical housewife should
not make frequent use of the various kinds. It should be bought,
however, from a reputable firm, in order that the greatest value may be
obtained for the money spent. In addition, it should be used as soon as
possible after the can has been opened; if all of it cannot be utilized
at one time, it should be placed in a covered receptacle--not a metal
one--and kept cold to prevent it from spoiling. Often canned fish can be
served without any further preparation than removing it from the can.
However, as some varieties, particularly salmon and tuna fish, are much
used in the preparation of both cold and cooked dishes, several recipes
are here given for these varieties.

69. CREAMED TUNA FISH.--Combining tuna fish with a cream sauce and
serving it over toast makes a dish that is both delicate and
palatable--one that will prove very satisfactory when something to take
the place of meat in a light meal is desired.

CREAMED TUNA FISH
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 Tb. butter
3 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/8 tsp. paprika
1-1/2 c. hot milk
1-1/2 c. tuna fish
1 egg

Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the flour, salt, pepper, and
paprika. Stir well, pour in the milk, and when this has thickened add
the tuna fish. Allow this to heat thoroughly in the sauce. Just before
serving, add the slightly beaten egg and cook until this has thickened.
Pour over toast and serve.

70. SALMON MOLD.--A change from the usual way of serving salmon can be
had by making a salmon mold such as is illustrated in Fig. 24. Besides
being a delicious dish and providing variety in the diet, salmon mold is
very attractive.

SALMON MOLD
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. salmon
2 Tb. vinegar
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 Tb. gelatine
1-1/2 c. boiling water

[Illustration: FIG. 24]

Remove all skin and bones from the salmon when it is taken from the can,
and mince it thoroughly with a fork. Add the vinegar, salt, and pepper.
Prepare the gelatine by dissolving it in the boiling water. Add the
seasoned salmon to the prepared gelatine. With cold water, wet a
ring-shaped mold having an open space in the center. Pour the
salmon-and-gelatine mixture into this mold, and allow it to stand until
it solidifies. Arrange a bed of lettuce leaves on a chop plate, turn the
mold out on this, and fill the center with dressing. Serve at once. A
very desirable dressing for this purpose is made as follows:

DRESSING FOR SALMON MOLD

1 c. cream
2 Tb. vinegar
1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. sugar
1 c. finely chopped cucumber

Whip the cream until it is stiff, and add the vinegar, salt, and sugar.
Fold into this the finely chopped cucumber.

71. SALMON PATTIES.--Delicious patties can be made from salmon by
combining it with bread crumbs and using a thick white sauce to hold the
ingredients together. These may be either sautéd in shallow fat or fried
in deep fat.

SALMON PATTIES
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

2 c. finely minced salmon
1 c. fresh bread crumbs
1 c. thick white sauce
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
Dry bread crumbs

With the salmon, mix the fresh bread crumbs and the white sauce. Season
with salt and pepper. Shape into round patties, roll in the dry bread
crumbs, and fry in deep fat or sauté in shallow fat. Serve hot with or
without sauce.

72. CREAMED SALMON WITH RICE.--A creamed protein dish is always more
satisfactory if it is served on some other food, particularly one high
in carbohydrate. When this is done, a better balanced dish is the
result. Creamed salmon and rice make a very nutritious and appetizing
combination.

CREAMED SALMON WITH RICE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. salmon
1 c. medium white sauce
Steamed rice

Break the salmon into moderately small pieces and carefully fold these
into the hot white sauce. Serve this on a mound of hot steamed rice.


RECIPES FOR LEFT-OVER FISH

73. So as not to waste any food material, it is necessary that all
left-over fish be utilized in some way. This is not so simple a matter
as in the case of meat, because fish is one of the foods that are not
popular as a left-over dish. Still fish left-overs can be used if a
little thought is given to the matter. Of course, it is a wise plan to
prepare only the quantity of fish that can be consumed at the meal for
which it is cooked, but should any remain it should not be thrown away,
for some use can be made of it. A point to remember, however, is that
fish is not satisfactory in soup of any kind except a fish soup;
therefore, bits of left-over fish may be added to only such soups as
clam chowder or other fish chowder.

Whether the fish has been boiled, steamed, baked, fried, sautéd, or
prepared in any other way, it may always be made into croquettes. When
used for this purpose, all the bones should be carefully removed. These
may be easily taken out after the fish has become cold. If the fish has
been stuffed and part of the stuffing remains, it may be broken into
pieces and used with the flesh of the fish. A recipe for croquettes in
which fish is combined with rice follows.

74. FISH CROQUETTES.--If any quantity of left-over fish is on hand, it
may be combined with rice to make very tasty croquettes.

FISH CROQUETTES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. cold fish
1 c. cold steamed rice
1 c. thick white sauce
Salt and pepper
1 egg
Crumbs

Mince the fish into small pieces, mix with the rice, and add the white
sauce. Season with salt and pepper and shape into croquettes. Dip into
slightly beaten egg, roll in crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Drain and
serve with any desired sauce.

75. CREAMED FISH IN POTATO NEST.--Fish may also be combined with mashed
potato to produce a most appetizing dish. Line a baking dish with hot
mashed potato, leaving a good-sized hollow in the center. Into this pour
creamed fish made by mixing equal proportions of left-over cold fish and
white sauce. Season well with salt and pepper, sprinkle with crumbs, and
dot the top with butter. Bake until the crumbs are brown. Serve hot.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHELL FISH

NATURE, VARIETIES, AND USE OF SHELL FISH

76. Besides the varieties of fish that have already been considered, the
general term fish also includes SHELL FISH. Fish of this kind are
different in structure from bony fish, for they are acquatic animals
that are entirely or partly encased in shells. They include _mollusks_,
or _bivalves_, such as oysters, clams, and scallops, and _crustaceans_,
such as lobsters, crabs, and shrimp.

77. The popularity of the edible varieties of mollusks and crustaceans
mentioned depends largely on whether they can be easily obtained and
whether they are pleasing to the local or individual taste. As they are
found in salt rivers, bays, and other shallow salt-water sources, their
greatest use is among people living near the seashore, but they are much
favored where they can be procured in edible condition. They are not so
cheap as many other fish foods; that is, a certain amount of money will
not purchase so great a quantity of shell fish, lobster for instance, as
some of the well-known varieties of fish proper, such as halibut or
whitefish. Lobsters and crabs are usually more expensive than oysters
and clams; consequently, they are used more often to provide a delicacy
or to supply something more or less uncommon for a special meal.

78. Several precautions should be observed in purchasing shell fish. For
instance, crabs and lobsters should be purchased alive. They are usually
shipped on ice so that they will remain in this condition for some time,
and they are displayed on ice in the markets for the same reason. Such
shell fish should be kept alive until they are plunged into boiling
water to cook. Oysters and clams bought in the shell must also be alive
when purchased. A tightly closed shell indicates that they are alive,
whereas a slightly open shell proves that they are dead. If these two
varieties are bought out of the shells, the fish themselves should not
be accompanied by a great quantity of liquid. Considerable liquid is an
indication that the oysters or clams have been adulterated by the
addition of water. Formerly it was the custom to keep oysters in fresh
water, as the water they absorb bloats or fattens them. This practice,
however, has fallen into disfavor.

79. Shell fish lend themselves admirably to a large variety of dishes,
including soups, entrees, salads, and substitutes for meat dishes. They
possess a great deal of distinctive flavor, their food value is
comparatively high, and, provided they are in good condition and are
properly prepared, they are healthful and easily digested. It can
therefore be seen that shell fish have much to recommend their use.
There is considerable danger, however, in using any varieties that are
not perfectly fresh or freshly cooked. In the case of mollusks, or
bivalves, much harm has resulted from the use of those which have been
grown or bred in unsanitary surroundings. Because of these facts, it is
of the utmost importance that great care be exercised in selecting and
preparing shell fish.

80. COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF SHELL FISH.--In composition, the
varieties of fish included under shell fish do not differ greatly from
fish proper. Most of them, however, contain more waste and less of the
food substances than fish, so that their food value is somewhat lower.
Table IV will serve to give a good idea of the composition and food
value of the several varieties of shell fish, and in studying it, a good
plan will be to compare it with Table I, which gives the food value of
fish. As will be observed, protein forms a very large proportion of the
food substance of shell fish. Also, they contain more carbohydrates than
fish, the amount ranging from .4 to 5.2 per cent., which is in the form
of sugar. Although this amount is too small to warrant much
consideration as a supply of carbohydrates, it is mentioned because it
is an interesting fact.

TABLE IV

COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF SHELL FISH

Name of Fish      Water  Protein  Fat  Total    Ash  Food Value
                                       Carbo-       Per Pound
                                      hydrates        Calories
Clams, removed
  from shell       80.8   10.6    1.1   5.2     2.3     340
Crabs, whole       77.1   16.6    2.0   1.2     3.1     415
Lobsters, whole    79.2   16.4    1.8    .4     2.2     390
Oysters, in shell  86.9    6.2    1.2   3.7     2.0     235
Scallops           80.3   14.8     .1   3.4     1.4     345




TABLE V

SEASONS FOR SHELL FISH

NAME OF FISH                     SEASON

Clams, hard shelled..............All the year
Clams, soft shelled..............May 1 to October 15
Crabs, hard shelled..............All the year
Crabs, soft shelled..............March 1 to October 15
Lobsters.........................All the year
Oysters..........................September 1 to May 1
Scallops.........................September 15 to April 1
Shrimp...........................March 15 to June 1, and
                                   September 15 to October 15


81. SEASONS FOR SHELL FISH.--With the exception of clams and lobster,
which can be obtained all the year around, shell fish have particular
seasons; that is, there is a certain time of the year when they are not
suitable for food. It is very important that every housewife know just
what these seasons are, so that she will not include the foods in the
diet of her family when they should not be used. Table V, which will
furnish her with the information she needs, should therefore be
carefully studied.

       *       *       *       *       *

OYSTERS, CLAMS, AND SCALLOPS

OYSTERS AND THEIR PREPARATION

[Illustration: FIG. 25]

82. OYSTERS, CLAMS, and SCALLOPS are salt-water fish that belong to the
family of mollusks, or soft-bodied animals. They are entirely encased in
hard shells, which, though of the same general shape, differ somewhat
from each other in appearance. Fig. 25 shows a group of oysters and
clams, the three on the left being oysters and the three on the right,
clams. Oysters are larger than clams and have a rough, uneven shell,
whereas clams have a smooth, roundish shell. The three varieties of
mollusks are closely related in their composition and in their use as
food, but as oysters are probably used more commonly than the others
they are considered first.

83. COMPOSITION OF OYSTERS.--Oysters occupy a prominent place among
animal foods, because they are comparatively high in protein. In
addition, they contain a substance that most flesh foods lack in any
quantity, namely, carbohydrate in the form of glycogen, and for this
reason are said to resemble milk closely in composition. A comparison
of the following figures will show how these foods resemble each other:

              WATER PROTEIN  FAT  CARBOHYDRATE  MINERAL SALTS
Milk.........  87.0   3.3    4.0      5.0            .7
Oysters......  86.9   6.2    1.2      3.7            2.0

Oysters, as will be observed, contain only a small quantity of fat, and
for this reason their total food value is somewhat lower than that of
milk. A pint of milk has a value of 325 calories, while the same
quantity of oysters has an approximate value of only 250 calories.
Because of the difference in the cost of these two foods, oysters
costing several times as much as milk, the use of oysters is not so
cheap a way of supplying food material.

84. DIGESTIBILITY OF OYSTERS.--When merely the ability of the digestive
tract to handle oysters is taken into consideration, they are said to be
easily digested if they are served raw or are properly prepared. This is
due to the fact that when taken as a food they are disposed of in a
comparatively short time by the stomach. In addition, their absorption
from the alimentary tract is quite complete; that is, they contain
little or no waste material. But, just as cooking has much to do with
the digestibility of other protein foods, so it has with oysters. For
this reason, the housewife who wishes to feed her family this food in
its most digestible form must thoroughly understand all phases of
its cooking.

85. HEALTHFULNESS OF OYSTERS.--Much illness has been attributed to
oysters, and without doubt they have been the cause of some typhoid and
some ptomaine poisoning. A knowledge of the reason for these diseases
has done much to eliminate them. It is now definitely known that much of
the typhoid caused from eating oysters was due to the conditions under
which they were grown. In their growth, oysters fasten themselves to
stationary things, such as rocks or piles driven into the ground
underneath the water, and they obtain their food by simply opening the
shell and making use of minute particles of plant and animal life that
they are able to extract from the water. When the water was not clean or
when sewage was turned into it, typhoid germs were transmitted to
persons who took oysters as food. At present, there is scarcely any
danger from such causes, for more care is now given to the conditions
under which oysters grow. Ptomaine poisoning from oysters was caused by
eating them when they had been improperly cared for in storage or had
been taken from the shells after they were dead. Unless persons handling
oysters know how to take care of them, this danger is still likely
to exist.

86. PURCHASING OYSTERS.--To be able to purchase oysters intelligently,
the housewife should be familiar with the names of the various kinds.
These names are dependent on the locality from which the oysters come,
and include _Blue Points, Cape Cods, Cotuits, Lynn Havens_, and numerous
other varieties. It should be remembered that the varieties raised in
different localities are quite distinctive, differing to some extent in
both size and appearance. Unless the purchaser is familiar with the
different varieties, almost any of the small oysters are likely to be
sold to her for one of the small varieties and, likewise, any of the
large oysters for one of the large varieties. While this is of small
consequence, provided the quality is satisfactory and the price is
right, it is well for every housewife to familiarize herself with the
names of the various kinds, so that she may know just what variety she
is purchasing.

87. When oysters are bought in the shell, they should be alive, a fact
that can be determined by the tightly closed shell, as has already been
stated. If the shells are not closed or can be easily pried apart, it
may be known that the oysters are not good and that they should be
rejected. When it is possible to procure them, oysters that have been
removed from the shells immediately after being taken from the beds are
preferable to those which have not been removed from the shells before
shipping. When purchased out of the shells, oysters should be grayish in
color, should have no disagreeable odor, and should contain no excess
water or liquid. After being purchased, oysters should be kept on ice
unless they can be cooked at once.

The season for oysters is from September to April, inclusive. While in
some localities they can be purchased at other times during the year,
they are not likely to be so good. In fact, it is not safe to use
oysters during the warm months.

88. IMPORTANT POINTS IN COOKING OYSTERS.--The protein of oysters, like
that found in other foods, is coagulated by heat. Long heat, provided it
is sufficiently intense, makes oysters tough, and in this condition they
are neither agreeable to eat nor readily digested. When they are to be
cooked at a high temperature, therefore, the cooking should be done
quickly. If they are to be cooked at a temperature below the boiling
point, they may be subjected to heat for a longer time without becoming
so tough as when a high temperature is used. Cooking quickly at a high
temperature, however, is preferable in most cases to long, slow cooking.
For example, in the preparation of oyster stew, long cooking produces no
better flavor than short cooking at a high temperature and renders
oysters far less digestible.

[Illustration: FIG. 26]

[Illustration: FIG. 27]

89. OPENING OYSTERS.--Unless oysters are bought already opened, it
becomes necessary to open them in the home before they can be served raw
or cooked. To open oysters is not difficult, and with a little
experience the work can be done with ease. It will be well to note that
the two shells of an oyster, which are called _valves_, are held
together by a single muscle, known as the _adductor muscle_, that lies
near the center, and that this muscle must be cut before the shell will
open readily. Before attempting to open oysters, however, they should be
scrubbed with clean water, so as to remove any sand that may be on the
shells. When the oysters are cleaned, proceed to open them in the manner
shown in Figs. 26 and 27. First, as in Fig. 26, insert the point of a
knife into the hinged, or pointed, end and push the blade between the
valves until they appear to separate, when it will be known that the
muscle has been cut. Then, as in Fig. 27, lay the valves open and loosen
the oyster from the shell by slipping the knife under it.

If the oysters that are being opened are to be cooked before serving,
simply drop them with their liquid into a suitable vessel and discard
the shells. Before using the oysters, remove them from the liquid, look
them over carefully to see that no small particles of shells cling to
them, and wash them in clean, cold water to remove any sand that may be
present. Also, strain the liquid through a cloth, so that it will be
free from sand when used in the preparation of the dish for which the
oysters are to be used or for the making of soup or broth.

Oysters that are to be eaten raw are frequently served on the half
shell. Therefore, if they are to be used in this way, place each oyster,
as it is loosened in the process of opening, into the deeper shell, as
Fig. 27 shows, and discard the other one. Very often good-looking oyster
shells are saved in order that they may be used from time to time in
serving raw oysters that are bought already opened.

[Illustration: FIG. 27]

90. RAW OYSTERS.--When an appetizer is desired in a meal that is to
consist of several courses, raw oysters are often used for the first
course. Oysters that are to be eaten raw may be served in the shells or
removed from them. They are bland in flavor, however, and require some
sharp, highly seasoned sauce in order to give them sufficient snap. The
sauces commonly used for this purpose include cocktail sauce, chilli
sauce, catsup, horseradish, and tobasco sauce. Sometimes, though, lemon
juice or vinegar and pepper and salt are preferred to sauce. As a rule,
crisp crackers, small squares of toast, or wafers and butter accompany
raw oysters in any form, and sometimes celery and radishes are
served, too.

91. When a cocktail sauce is served with raw oysters, they are generally
referred to as OYSTER COCKTAILS. Two methods of serving these are in
practice. In one, as shown in Fig. 28, the cocktail sauce is put into a
small glass placed in the center of a soup plate filled with cracked
ice, and the oysters, usually six in half shells, are arranged around
the glass, on the ice. In the other, as shown in Fig. 29, the desired
number of oysters that have been removed from the shells are dropped
into a stemmed glass containing the cocktail sauce, and the glass is
placed in a bowl of cracked ice. An _oyster fork_, which is a small,
three-pronged fork, is always served with raw oysters, and usually a
piece of lemon is supplied in addition to the cocktail sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 28]

[Illustration: FIG. 29]

92. OYSTER STEW.--If an extremely nutritious way of preparing oysters is
desired, oyster stew should be selected. This is perhaps the simplest
way in which to cook oysters, and yet care must be exercised in making
this dish, for the oysters should not be cooked too long and the milk,
which must be brought to the boiling point, should not be allowed to
burn. Oyster stew makes an excellent dish for lunch. It should not be
served as the first course of a heavy meal because of the large amount
of nutriment it contains.

OYSTER STEW
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. oysters
1 qt. milk
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Pour 1 cupful of water over the oysters, look them over carefully, and
remove any pieces of shell that may cling to the oysters, making sure
that any particles of sand are washed off. Heat this liquid to the
boiling point and then strain it through a cloth. Put the milk on the
fire to heat, and when hot, add the butter, salt, and pepper, and
strained liquid. After the whole mixture has come to the boiling point,
pour in the oysters and cook until they look plump and the edges begin
to curl. Remove from the heat and serve with crisp crackers.

93. CREAMED OYSTERS.--Another nutritious way in which to prepare oysters
and at the same time produce a dish that is pleasing to most persons is
to cream them. After being creamed, oysters may be served over toast or
in timbale cases.

CREAMED OYSTERS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
24 oysters
1-1/2 c. medium white sauce
Salt and pepper
6 slices toast or 6 timbale cases

Melt the butter in a frying pan, add the oysters, and heat them in the
butter until the edges begin to curl slightly. Pour the hot oysters into
the hot white sauce, season to taste with salt and pepper, and serve
over toast or in timbale cases.

94. SCALLOPED OYSTERS.--No food makes a more palatable scalloped dish
than oysters. Oysters so prepared are liked by nearly every one, and the
ingredients with which they are combined help to give such a dish
balance so far as the food substances are concerned. Care should be
taken, however, in the baking of scalloped oysters, for they are likely
to become tough if they are cooked too long.

SCALLOPED OYSTERS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. bread crumbs
2 Tb. butter
1 c. cracker crumbs
1 pt. oysters
Salt and pepper
1 c. milk

Butter the bread crumbs with the butter, and then mix them with the
cracker crumbs. Sprinkle the bottom of a greased baking dish with
one-fourth of the crumbs, and over this put a layer of oysters that have
been previously cleaned. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and add
one-fourth more of the crumbs. Add another layer of oysters, sprinkle
with salt and pepper, and place the remainder of the crumbs on top.
Strain the liquid from the oysters through a piece of cloth, mix this
with the milk, and pour over the dish thus prepared. Place in a hot
oven, and bake until the mixture is thoroughly heated and the top
is brown.

95. FRIED OYSTERS.--Of all the dishes prepared from oysters, fried
oysters undoubtedly find favor with the greatest number of persons.
However, unless care is taken in frying the oysters, they are likely to
be somewhat indigestible. Deep fat should be used for this purpose, and
it should be hot enough to brown a 1-inch cube of bread a golden brown
in 40 seconds.

FRIED OYSTERS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

24 large oysters
1 egg
1/4 c. milk
Fine cracker crumbs
Salt
Pepper

Thoroughly dry the oysters by laying them on one end of a soft cloth and
patting them with the other. Beat the egg and add the milk to it. Dip
the oysters into the cracker crumbs, then into the egg-and-milk mixture,
and again into the crumbs. Fry in deep fat until brown. Remove from the
fat, drain well, and place on oiled paper. Sprinkle with salt and pepper
and serve hot.

96. OYSTER PIE.--Baking oysters into a pie is another means of combining
a protein food with foods that are high in other food substances. As
oyster pie is somewhat hearty, it may be used as the main dish of a
heavy meal.

OYSTER PIE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. oysters
1 c. medium white sauce
Salt and pepper
Baking-powder biscuit dough

Cut each of the oysters into three or four pieces, and place them in a
greased baking dish. Pour over them the hot white sauce and the juice
from the oysters. Season with salt and pepper. Over the top, place a
layer of the biscuit dough rolled about 1/4 inch thick. Set in a hot
oven and bake until the crust is brown.

97. PIGS IN BLANKETS.--When something entirely different in the way of
oysters is desired, pigs in blankets should be tried. This is a very
good name for the dish given in the accompanying recipe, for the oysters
are rolled up in a strip of bacon, which serves as a blanket. They are
especially suitable for a light meal, such as luncheon or a dainty lunch
that is to be served to company.

PIGS IN BLANKETS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

18 large oysters
18 thin strips of bacon

After the oysters have been cleaned, roll each one in a strip of bacon.
Fasten the bacon where the edges meet by running a toothpick through at
this point. Place in a broiler and broil on one side until brown; then
turn them and broil until the other side is brown. Serve hot.

98. OYSTER FRITTERS.--Variety may also be secured in the use of oysters
by making oyster fritters. When such fritters are nicely browned and
served with an appetizing sauce, an attractive as well as a tasty dish
is the result.

OYSTER FRITTERS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. oysters
1 egg muffin batter

Clean the oysters and cut each into four or five pieces. Make a one-egg
muffin batter and to it add the cut oysters. Drop the mixture by
spoonfuls into deep fat and fry until brown. Remove from the fat, drain,
and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Serve with a desired sauce.


CLAMS AND THEIR PREPARATION

99. NATURE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF CLAMS.--Clams are bivalves similar to
oysters in both form and composition. Because of the similarity in
composition, they are utilized in much the same ways as oysters, being
used extensively for food in parts of the country where the supply is
large. There are numerous varieties of clams, and some of them differ
slightly from each other in appearance, color, and flavor. Preference
for the different varieties is largely a matter of individual taste.

Clams may be purchased loose or in the shell and they may be served in
or out of the shell. However, when bought in the shell, they must be
purchased alive and must be subjected to the same tests as are oysters.
As in the case of oysters, they may be eaten raw or cooked. Their
preparation for cooking is similar to that of oysters. In the raw state,
they are easily digested, but upon the application of heat they become
tough, and the longer they are cooked, the tougher they become. It can
therefore be seen that the digestibility of clams is influenced very
much by cooking.

100. OPENING CLAMS.--If clams are to be opened in the home, the method
illustrated in Fig. 30 may be employed. First wash the clams to remove
the sand, and then place a clam on a hard surface so that the pointed
edge is up. Insert the thin edge of a knife into the very slight groove
between the shells, or valves, and with a heavy utensil of some kind
strike the top of the knife several times so as to separate the valves.
Then, as in opening oysters, spread the shells apart, as shown, and
loosen the clam from the shell it adheres to.

[Illustration: FIG. 30]

101. RAW CLAMS.--Like oysters, raw clams are generally served as a
cocktail, or an appetizer, at the beginning of a meal. If they are to be
served in the half shell, place them in a dish of cracked ice; if they
are to be served without the shells, place the required number in a
stemmed glass that is set in a dish of cracked ice. In either case,
lemon or a suitable sauce, or both, should be supplied.

102. STEAMED CLAMS.--Steaming is the method generally adopted when clams
in large numbers are cooked for a "clam bake," but there is no reason
why it cannot be used by the housewife when she wishes to cook only
enough for her family. When large quantities are to be steamed, use is
generally made of a steamer, but the housewife will find that she can
steam a few clams very satisfactorily in a saucepan or a similar vessel.

To prepare steamed clams, scrub the shells of the clams until they are
perfectly clean. Place the desired number thus cleaned in a saucepan and
add enough water to cover the bottom of the pan about 1 inch. Allow this
to cook until the shells of the clams open. Remove the clams from the
pan and serve them in the shells. Provide each person with a small dish
of melted butter into which to dip the clams as they are removed from
the shells to be eaten. The liquid found in the clams may be poured from
the shell before the clams are served, and after being well seasoned may
be served as clam broth.

103. BAKED CLAMS.--Another very appetizing way in which to prepare clams
is to combine them with bread crumbs, season them well, and then bake
them until they are well browned. Select several good-sized clams for
each person to be served. Scrub the shells well and open them. Remove
the clams and chop them into small pieces. To each cupful of chopped
clams, add 2 cupfuls of buttered bread crumbs, 1 tablespoonful of
chopped parsley, 1 tablespoonful of chopped pimiento, and 1
tablespoonful of onion juice. Season the mixture with salt and pepper
and fill the shells with it. Place these in a shallow pan and bake in a
very hot oven until the crumbs are well browned on top. Serve hot.

104. FRIED CLAMS.--As oysters make a very desirable dish when fried in
deep fat, so clams may be treated in this way, too. Remove the desired
number of clams from the shells, wash them thoroughly, and dry them on a
clean towel. Dip them into beaten egg, and finally into the crumbs. Fry
in deep fat until they are a golden brown. Serve with slices of lemon.


SCALLOPS AND THEIR PREPARATION

105. NATURE OF SCALLOPS.--Scallops, which are another form of bivalves,
are less commonly used for food than oysters and clams. Scalloped dishes
get their name from the fact that scallop shells were originally used
for their preparation. Not all of the scallop is used for food; merely
the heavy muscle that holds the two shells together is edible. Scallops
are slightly higher in protein than oysters and clams and they also have
a higher food value than these two mollusks. The most common method of
preparation for scallops is to fry them, but they may also be baked in
the shells.

106. FRIED SCALLOPS.--If scallops are properly fried, they make an
appetizing dish. As they are a rather bland food, a sauce of some kind,
preferably a sour one, is generally served with them.

Select the desired number of scallops and wash thoroughly. Dip first
into either fine bread crumbs or cracker crumbs, then into beaten egg,
and again into the crumbs. Fry in deep fat until a golden brown, remove,
and drain. Serve with lemon or a sour sauce, such as horseradish or
tomato sauce.

107. BAKED SCALLOPS.--If a tasty as well as a slightly unusual dish is
desired to give variety to the diet, baked scallops will undoubtedly
find favor. As shown in the accompanying recipe, mushrooms are one of
the ingredients in baked scallops and these not only provide additional
material, but improve the flavor.

To prepare baked scallops, clean the desired number, parboil for 15
minutes, drain, and cut into small pieces. For each cupful of scallops,
melt 2 tablespoonfuls of butter in a frying pan, sauté in it 1
tablespoonful of chopped onion, and add 1/2 cupful of chopped mushrooms.
When these have browned, add 2 tablespoonfuls of flour and 1 cupful of
milk. Cook until thick and then add the scallops. Fill the scallop
shells with the mixture, sprinkle with buttered bread crumbs, place in
the oven, and bake until the crumbs are brown.

       *       *       *       *       *

LOBSTERS, CRABS, AND SHRIMP

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

108. The shell fish, LOBSTERS, CRABS, and SHRIMP, come under the head of
crustaceans; that is, animals consisting of jointed sections, each of
which is covered with a hard shell. Their flesh is similar in
composition to that of other fish, but it is tougher and harder to
digest. However, it is popular because of its unique and delicate
flavor. In fact, whenever these varieties of fish can be obtained along
the seacoast or within a reasonable distance from the place where they
are caught, they are considered a delicacy. If they can be shipped alive
to any point, they are perfectly safe to use, although quite high in
price because of their perishable nature.

109. Unless such shell fish can be procured alive in the markets, the
use of a good brand of any of them canned is recommended. In fact,
canned lobster, crab, and shrimp are very satisfactory and may be
substituted for any of the fresh cooked varieties in the recipes that
follow. It is true that some persons object to canned food because
ptomaine poisoning sometimes results, but it has been found that
ptomaine poisoning is more liable to result from eating these foods when
they are bought in the market in poor condition than when they are
secured in canned form. Care must be exercised, however, whenever use is
made of canned food of any kind. Upon opening a can of any of these
varieties of fish, the entire contents should be removed from the can at
once and used as soon as possible. It must be remembered that the
ptomaine poisoning that is sometimes caused by eating canned foods is
not due to the fact that the foods come in tin cans, but that they are
allowed to stand in the cans after they are opened. Upon their being
exposed to the air, putrefaction sets in and causes the harmful effect.

110. Lobsters, crabs, and shrimp are very similar in composition, shrimp
being slightly higher in protein and total food value than the others.
If they are not prepared in an indigestible way, they are comparatively
easy to digest. It has been proved a fallacy that lobster and ice cream
are a dangerous combination, for if both are in good condition they may
be combined with no ill effects to the normal individual.


LOBSTERS AND THEIR PREPARATION

111. DISTINGUISHING FEATURES.--Of these three types of sea food,
lobsters are perhaps the most popular. They are found along the North
Atlantic and North Pacific seacoasts. Alive, they are mottled
bluish-green in color, but upon being cooked they change to bright red.
As soon as they are caught, many of them are packed in ice and shipped
alive to various points, while others are plunged immediately into
boiling water and sold cooked. A live lobster ready for cooking is shown
in Fig. 31. Lobsters vary greatly in size. Only those 9 inches or more
in length can be sold, the smaller ones being thrown back into the
water. When they are purchased either raw or cooked, they should be
heavy for their size; that is, they should be heavy because of their
plumpness and good condition.

[Illustration: FIG. 31]

112. PRELIMINARY PREPARATION.--To prepare a lobster, which should be
alive, grasp it firmly by the back, as shown in Fig. 32, plunge it
quickly, head first, into a kettle of rapidly boiling water, and then
submerge the rest of the body. Be sure to have a sufficient amount of
water to cover the lobster completely. Boil rapidly for 5 minutes; then
lower the flame or remove to a cooler part of the stove and cook slowly
for 1/2 hour. Remove from the water and allow to cool.

After being prepared in this way, a lobster may be served cold or it may
be used in the preparation of various made dishes. If it is to be used
without further preparation, it is often served from the shell, which is
usually split open. Mayonnaise or some other sauce is generally served
with lobster. The flesh is removed from the shell with a small fork as
it is eaten.

[Illustration: FIG. 32]

113. REMOVING LOBSTER FROM THE SHELL.--The majority of the dishes made
from lobster require that the flesh be removed from the shell. To do
this, first pull off the two large claws and the four pairs of small
claws, as shown in Fig. 33, and break the tail from the body.
Then with scissors, as in Fig. 34, cut a single slit the entire
length of the shell covering the under part of the tail and
remove the flesh inside the tail in a whole, large piece, as shown in
Fig. 35. The intestinal tract, which can be readily observed, will be
found embedded in this piece and running the entire length. Slash the
flesh and remove it. Next remove the flesh of the body from the shell,
retaining only that part which appears to be fibrous, like the flesh of
the tail. The stomach, which is called "the lady" because its inside
appearance closely resembles a lady sitting in a chair, should not be
removed from the shell. However, care should be taken to obtain all the
flesh surrounding the bones in the bony part of the lobster. The coral
substance, that is, the roe of the lobster, should also be removed, as
it can be used for a garnish.

[Illustration FIG. 33]

[Illustration: FIG. 34]

With the flesh removed from the shell, proceed to take out that
contained in the claws. Break open the large claws, using a nut cracker
or a small hammer for this purpose, and, as in Fig. 36, remove the flesh
that they contain. If the small claws are to be used for a garnish, as
is often done, remove the flesh without breaking them; otherwise break
them as in the case of the large ones.

[Illustration: FIG. 35]

114. LOBSTER COCKTAIL.--Practically all varieties of shell fish make
most satisfactory cocktails, and lobster is no exception. To make a
lobster cocktail, shred or cut into small pieces the flesh of a lobster
that has been prepared according to the directions just given. Chill the
shreds or pieces and then serve them in stemmed cocktail glasses with
any desirable cocktail sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 36]

115. SCALLOPED LOBSTER.--Persons who care for the flavor of lobster will
find scalloped lobster a very attractive dish. When prepared in this
way, it is suitable either for luncheon or for dinner.

SCALLOPED LOBSTER
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. lobster meat
1 c. medium white sauce
2/3 c. buttered bread crumbs
1 hard-cooked egg
Salt
Pepper

Mix the lobster with the medium white sauce. Butter a baking dish, place
half of the crumbs in the bottom, and pour over them the lobster and
white sauce. Slice the hard-cooked egg over the top of the lobster,
season the whole well with salt and pepper, and sprinkle the remainder
of the crumbs over the top. Place in a hot oven and bake until the
crumbs are brown. Garnish with sprays of parsley and serve at once.

116. DEVILED LOBSTER.--A dish that is delicious and at the same time
very attractive is deviled lobster. After removing the flesh from the
shell, the shell should be cleaned thoroughly, as it is to be used as a
receptacle in which to put the lobster mixture for baking. When removed
from the oven, this dish can be made more attractive by garnishing it
with the lobster claws and tail.

DEVILED LOBSTER
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 Tb. chopped onion
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
Dash of Cayenne pepper
1/8 tsp. paprika
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 Tb. lemon juice
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1 c. milk
2 c. lobster meat
1/4 c. buttered cracker crumbs

Sauté the onion in the butter, and to this add the flour, salt, Cayenne
pepper, paprika, pepper, lemon juice, and parsley. Mix well and add the
milk. When the whole has cooked until it is thick, add the lobster. Pour
the mixture into the clean shell of the lobster, sprinkle with cracker
crumbs, and place in the oven long enough to brown the crumbs. Remove
from the oven, place on a serving dish, garnish with the claws and tail
of the lobster, if desired, and serve at once.

117. LOBSTER À LA NEWBURG.--When lobster à la Newburg is mentioned, one
naturally thinks of a chafing dish, for this is one of the dishes that
is very often made in a chafing dish and served at small social
gatherings. However, it can be made just as satisfactorily on the
kitchen stove and is a dish suitable for a home luncheon or
small dinner.

LOBSTER À LA NEWBURG
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
1 Tb. flour
2 c. lobster
1/2 tsp. salt
Few grains of Cayenne pepper
1/2 c. milk
1/2 c. thin cream
1 tsp. vinegar
1 Tb. lemon juice
2 egg yolks

Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, and into this pour the
lobster meat cut into rather large pieces. Add the salt, pepper, milk,
and cream; cook together until thick, and then pour in the vinegar and
lemon juice. Beat the egg yolks and stir them into the cooked mixture,
using care to prevent them from curdling. When the mixture has
thickened, remove from the stove and serve over toast.

118. LOBSTER CROQUETTES.--Probably the most attractive dish that can be
made out of lobster is the one explained in the accompanying recipe. As
this is artistically garnished, and at the same time extremely
appetizing, it is suitable for a meal that is intended to be very nice,
such as a dainty luncheon. If the elaborate garnishing here suggested is
not desired, the croquettes may be served with merely a suitable sauce.

LOBSTER CROQUETTES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. thick white sauce
2 eggs
2 c. diced lobster meat
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
Fine bread crumbs

Prepare the white sauce and allow it to cool. Add one beaten egg and the
lobster meat. Season with the salt and pepper. Shape into croquettes,
roll in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and fry in deep fat until an even
brown. Drain, stick a lobster claw into the end of each, and arrange on
a platter with the claws around the outside. Pour a medium white sauce
over the opposite ends and the centers of the croquettes and over this
sprinkle the lobster coral and hard-cooked egg yolks, which have been
forced through a sieve. In the center of the platter, arrange a small
mound of parsley and one of the large claws of the lobster.


CRABS AND THEIR PREPARATION

119. NATURE OF CRABS.--Numerous varieties of crabs are obtained along
the seashores of the United States, and most of them measure not more
than 5 or 6 inches across. Shell fish in this form are used for food
both before the shells have hardened, when they are known as
_soft-shelled crabs_, and after the shells have grown hard, when they
are called _hard-shelled crabs_. To be at their best, crabs should be as
heavy as lobsters in proportion to their size. Their flesh should be
firm and stiff and their eyes should be bright. The male crab has a
smaller body and longer claws than the female. In food value, crabs are
quite similar to lobsters.

Tiny _oyster crabs_ are found in the shells of crabs as well as in
oysters. These are considered a great delicacy and are used chiefly for
garnishing, because they are very small and, as a rule, are not found in
large numbers.

120. PRELIMINARY PREPARATION.--Before either soft-shelled or
hard-shelled crabs can be used as food, a certain amount of preparation
is necessary. In the case of hard-shelled crabs, plunge them alive into
hot water, allow them to come to the boiling point, and cook slowly for
1/2 hour. It is a good plan to add 1 tablespoonful of salt for each crab
that is being boiled. While the crabs are cooking, remove the scum that
rises to the top. When they are sufficiently cooked, open the shells and
take out the meat, being careful to remove all the meat from the claws.

Soft-shelled crabs require a somewhat different kind of preparation.
With this variety, lift up the points on each side of the back shell and
remove the spongy substance that is found under them. In addition, take
off the apron, which is the small piece that occurs at the lower part of
the shell and that terminates in points. The crabs are then ready for
frying, which is the method of cooking that is usually applied to
this variety.

121. CRAB-FLAKE COCKTAIL.--Crab meat is used for cocktails in the same
way as oysters, clams, and lobster. In fact, no better appetizer to
serve at the beginning of a meal can be found. To make crab-flake
cocktail, remove the meat from the shells of cooked hard-shelled crabs
in the way just explained, and chill it. Then place it in stemmed
glasses and serve with cocktail sauce.

122. DEVILED CRABS.--Variety in the cooking of hard-shelled crabs can be
secured by deviling them according to the accompanying directions. As
will be observed, this is done in practically the same way that lobster
is deviled.

DEVILED CRABS
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 Tb. butter
4 crabs
1 c. cream sauce
1 Tb. onion juice
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash Cayenne pepper
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 egg
Cracker crumbs

Put the butter in a frying pan, add the meat from the four crabs, and
pour into this the cream sauce. Season with the onion juice, salt,
Cayenne pepper, and pepper. Add the well-beaten egg and allow the
mixture to cook until the egg has thickened, being careful not to let it
curd. Fill the back shells of the crabs with this mixture, sprinkle with
cracker crumbs, place in a hot oven, and bake until brown. Serve hot
or cold.

123. FRIED SOFT-SHELLED CRABS.--After soft-shelled crabs are prepared in
the manner explained in Art. 120, they are usually fried in deep fat.
Egg and cracker dust or flour are used to make a coating for the crabs.

FRIED SOFT-SHELLED CRABS
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

4 soft-shelled crabs
1 egg
Cracker dust or flour
Salt and pepper

Prepare the crabs by removing the apron and the spongy substance under
the shell of each crab. Beat the egg slightly. Roll the crabs first in
the egg and then in the cracker dust or the flour. Fry in hot, deep fat
until a golden brown. Remove from the fat, drain, and sprinkle well with
salt and pepper to season. Serve hot or cold.

124. CREAMED CRAB MEAT.--When the meat of hard-shelled crabs is creamed,
it makes a very dainty dish, especially if it is served over toast or in
timbale cases. To give a touch of color and at the same time add a
little flavor, chopped pimiento is generally added.

Boil the desired number of hard-shelled crabs and remove the meat from
the shells. For each cupful of crab meat, prepare 1 cupful of medium
white sauce. Add the crab meat, season well, and, if desired, add some
chopped pimiento. Serve hot over toast or in timbale cases.


SHRIMP AND THEIR PREPARATION

125. NATURE OF SHRIMP.--Shrimp are similar to crabs and lobsters in
composition and in the methods of preparation. They differ considerably
in appearance, however, and are smaller in size. When alive, shrimp are
a mottled greenish color, but upon being dropped into boiling-hot water
they turn red. When they have cooked sufficiently, the meat, which is
very delicious, may be easily removed from the shells. After the meat of
shrimp is thus prepared, it may be used cold in a salad or a cocktail or
it may be utilized in a number of ways for hot dishes. Very often a
chafing dish is used in the preparation of such dishes, but this utensil
is not necessary, as they may be cooked in an ordinary utensil on a
stove of any kind.

[Illustration: FIG. 37]

126. CREAMED SHRIMP.--The usual way of preparing shrimp is to cook it
with mushrooms and then serve it over toast, or, as shown in Fig. 37, in
timbale cases. Creamed shrimp is dainty in appearance, pleasing to the
taste, and highly nutritious.

CREAMED SHRIMP
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. medium white sauce
1 c. diced shrimp
1 c. chopped mushrooms
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Heat the white sauce, and to it add the shrimp, mushrooms, salt, and
pepper. Beat a little butter into the mixture to improve the flavor,
heat, and serve in timbale cases, as shown, or over toast.

127. SHRIMP À LA SALLE.--Shrimp also makes an appetizing and attractive
dish when combined with tomato and green pepper. The accompanying recipe
gives directions for the preparation of such a dish, which is called
shrimp à La Salle.

SHRIMP À LA SALLE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
1 c. shredded shrimp
1 c. stewed tomato
1 small green pepper, chopped
1 Tb. chopped onion
1 tsp. celery salt
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Brown the butter in a saucepan and add the shrimp, tomato, green pepper,
onion, celery salt, salt, and pepper. Heat all together thoroughly, and
serve over toast.

COCKTAIL SAUCES

128. The various kinds of shell fish are served so frequently as
cocktails that cocktail sauces are much in demand. The foundation of
these sauces is always tomato catsup, but the ingredients used for
seasoning usually vary according to individual taste. The following
recipes make amounts sufficient for one serving:

COCKTAIL SAUCE I

1/4 tsp. grated horseradish
Juice of 1/4 lemon
12 drops tobasco sauce
10 drops Worcestershire sauce
1 Tb. tomato catsup

COCKTAIL SAUCE II

1 Tb. tomato catsup
1 Tb. grapefruit juice
1 tsp. spiced vinegar
Dash of tobasco sauce
Sprinkling of salt
Dusting of chopped parsley

Mix the ingredients thoroughly and serve with oysters, clams, lobster,
shrimp, or crab meat thoroughly chilled.


FISH AND SHELL FISH

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) (_a_) For what food may fish be substituted in the diet? (_b_) How
does fish compare with meat as to its usefulness as food?

(2) (_a_) What food substances are present in fish? (_b_) How does the
food value of fish compare with that of meat?

(3) (_a_) Discuss the digestibility of fish. (_b_) How does the salting
of fish for preservation affect its digestibility?

(4) How does the housewife's purchase of fish affect the market price?

(5) What methods of cookery should be used in preparing: (_a_) large
fish? (_b_) small fish?

(6) Mention the tests for determining the freshness of fish.

(7) Discuss the care of fish in the home.

(8) Give the steps in the preparation of a fish for cooking.

(9) Give the steps in the boning of a fish.

(10) (_a_) What are fillets? (_b_) Tell briefly how fillets are
obtained.

(11) Why are sauces frequently served with fish?

(12) (_a_) What is larding? (_b_) How may fish be larded? (_c_) For what
purpose is larding done?

(13) How may salt fish be freshened?

(14) (_a_) Mention the shell fish. (_b_) Discuss their usefulness in the
diet.

(15) What precautions should be taken in the purchase of shell fish?

(16) Discuss the composition and food value of shell fish.

(17) Compare the composition of milk with that of oysters.

(18) (_a_) What is the season for oysters? (_b_) How are oysters opened?

(19) (_a_) How are clams opened? (_b_) What is the effect of long
cooking on clams?

(20) (_a_) How are lobsters prepared? (_b_) Mention the two kinds of
crabs. (_c_) How do these differ?


ADDITIONAL WORK

Mention the varieties of fish most common in your local market.

Compare the cost of a sufficient amount of fish to serve your family
with the cost of beef and either veal or lamb served to the same number
of persons at other times. Submit your results.

       *       *       *       *       *




INDEX

A

Adductor muscle of an oyster,
American forcemeat balls,
Apples, Bacon with sliced,
  Cold pork with fried,
Asparagus soup, Cream of,

B

Bacon,
  and eggs,
  Calves' liver and,
  combined with cereals,
  combined with other foods,
  with sliced apples,
  with tomatoes,
Baked clams,
  fillet of whitefish,
  finnan haddie,
  fish,
  haddock,
  halibut,
  ham,
  poultry with rice,
  scallops,
Balls, American forcemeat,
  Codfish,
  Egg,
  Forcemeat,
Bass, Food value and composition of black,
Basting of meat,
Batter, Timbale-case,
Béchamel, Chicken,
Beef,
  Boiled corned,
  Braized,
  Composition and food value of,
  Cooking of,
  Corned,
  Cuts of,
  Fillet of,
  for stewing and coming, Cuts of,
  Frizzled,
  General characteristics of,
  hash,
  loaf, Recipe for,
  loin, Steaks obtained from,
  Mexican,
  organs and their preparation,
  pie,
  Pot-roasted,
  Preparation of stews and corned,
  Roast,
  stew,
  Tenderloin of,
Beefsteak, Broiled,
Beefsteaks and their preparation,
Birds, Preparation of small,
  Roast small,
Biscuits, Creamed veal on,
Bisques,
Bivalves,
Blue points,
Bluefish, Composition and food value of,
Bob veal,
Boiled cod,
  corned beef,
  dinner,
  fish,
  ham,
  salmon,
  tongue,
Boiler, Fish,
Boiling, Cooking meat by,
Bologna,
Bone stock,
Boned chicken,
Boning a chicken,
  a fish,
Borsch,
Bouillon,
  Tomato,
Braized beef,
  beef, Recipe for,
  tongue,
Braizing,
Bread sticks,
  stuffing,
Broiled beefsteak,
  fillet,
  fish,
  fresh mackerel,
  ham,
  pork, Sautéd or,
  poultry,
  scrod with potato border,
  shad roe,
  squirrel,
  sweetbreads,
  venison,
  venison, Sauce for,
Broiler,
Broilers, Composition and food value of,
Broiling, cooking meat by,
Broth,
Brown sauce, Veal cutlets in,
Buying meats, Points to consider in,

C

Cabbage, Scalloped pork and,
Calves' liver and bacon,
Canned fish in the diet,
Cape Cods,
Capons,
Carbohydrate in fish,
  in meat,
Care, nature, and use of stock pot,
  of fish in the home,
  of meat,
  of meat in the home,
  of meat in the market,
Carp, Composition and food value of,
Carving meat, Serving and,
  poultry, Serving and,
Casserole, Chicken en,
Catfish, Composition and food value of,
Caul,
Celery and radishes,
Cereals, Bacon combined with,
Chestnut purée,
  stuffing,
Chicken à la king,
  Béchamel,
  Boned,
  broilers, Composition and food value of,
  Crop of a,
  croquettes,
  curry,
  Cutting up a,
  Definition of,
  Determining the age of,
  Determining the freshness of,
  Drawing a,
  Dressing a,
  en casserole,
  feet, Preparing,
  Fricassee of,
  Fried,
  Frying,
  General marks of good quality in,
  giblets,
  Gravy for fried,
  Jellied,
  Maryland fried,
  pie,
  Plucking a,
  Poultry other than,
  Preparation of,
  Roast,
  Roasting,
  salad,
  salad, Mock,
  Selection of,
  Singeing a,
  stew with dumplings or noodles,
  with paprika sauce, Fried,
  with rice,
Chickens, Live,
Chops in tomato sauce, pork,
  Lamb and mutton,
  Veal,
Chowder, Clam,
  Corn,
  Fish,
  Potato,
Chowders,
Chuck roasts,
Clam chowder,
Clams, and scallops, Oysters,
  Baked,
  Composition and food value of,
  Fried,
  Nature and digestibility of,
  Opening of,
  Preparation of,
  Raw,
  Steamed,
Classes of soup, General,
  of soups denoting consistency,
Classification of poultry,
  of soups,
Cleaning fish,
Clear soup or bouillon, Stock for,
  soups,
  soups and stocks,
Clearing soup,
Cocktail, Crab-flake,
  Lobster,
  Oyster,
Cod, Boiled,
Codfish balls,
Creamed,
Cold pork with fried apples,
  -storage poultry,
Comparison of fish and meat, Table showing the,
  of fish with meat,
  of mutton and lamb,
Composition and food value of beef,
  and food value of black bass,
  and food value of bluefish,
  and food value of canned salmon,
  and food value of carp,
  and food value of catfish,
  and food value of chicken broilers,
  and food value of clams,
  and food value of crabs,
  and food value of fowl,
  and food value of halibut steak,
  and food value of lake trout,
  and food value of lamb,
  and food value of leg of lamb,
  and food value of lobsters,
  and food value of mutton,
  and food value of oysters,
  and food value of pork,
  and food value of pork chops,
  and food value of red snapper,
  and food value of scallops,
  and food value of shell fish,
  and food value of shell fish, Tables showing,
  and food value of veal,
  and food value of whitefish,
  and structure of meat,
  of fish,
  of oysters,
  of poultry,
Connective tissue,
Consommé,
Cooking meat for soup,
 meat, Methods of,
 meat, Purposes of,
  meat, Time required for,
  meats, Time table for,
  of beef,
  of fish,
  of giblets,
  of mutton and lamb,
  of pork,
  of poultry,
Cooking of veal,
  oysters, Important points in,
  Preparing rabbit for,
Corn chowder,
  soup, Cream of,
Corned beef,
  beef, Boiled,
  beef, Preparation of stews and,
Cottage pie,
Cotuits,
Crab, Deviled,
  flake cocktail,
  meat, Creamed,
Crabs, and shrimp, General characteristics of lobsters,
  Composition and food value of,
  Fried soft-shelled,
  Hard-shelled,
  Nature of,
  Oyster,
  Preliminary preparation of,
  Preparation of,
  Soft-shelled,
Cracker stuffing,
Crackers,
Cream-of-asparagus soup,
  of-corn soup,
  of-onion soup,
  of-pea soup,
  of-potato soup,
  of-spinach soup,
  of-tomato soup,
sauce, Lemon,
soups,
Creamed codfish,
  crab meat,
  finnan haddie,
  fish in potato nest,
  oysters,
  salmon with rice,
  shrimp,
  sweetbreads,
  tuna fish,
  veal on biscuits,
Crop of a chicken,
Croquettes,
  Chicken,
  Fish,
  Frying of,
  Lobster,
  Sweetbread,
  Veal,
Croutons,
Crown roast of lamb,
  roast of pork,
Crustaceans,
Cured pork, Preparation of,
Curry, Chicken,
Cutlets in brown sauce, Veal,
  Pan-broiled veal steak or,
Cutlets, Veal steaks or,
Cuts, Names and uses of beef,
  Names of pork,
  obtained from a side of beef and their uses, Table of,
  of beef,
  of beef for stewing and corning,
  of beef, Method of obtaining,
  of beef, Table of,
  of beef, Uses of,
  of mutton and lamb, Distinguishing features of,
  of mutton and lamb, Method of obtaining,
  of mutton and lamb, Names and uses of,
  of mutton and lamb, Table of,
  of pork,
  of pork, Uses of,
  of veal and their uses,
  Preparation of veal,
  Table of pork,
  Table of veal,
Cutting up a chicken,

D

Daikan,
Deep-fat frying, Principles of,
Delmonico steak,
Deviled crab,
  lobster,
Diet, Canned fish in the,
  Fish in the,
  Meat in the,
  Salt and smoked fish in the,
Digestibility of clams, Nature and,
  of fish,
  of oysters,
Drawing a chicken,
Drawn-butter sauce,
Dressing a chicken,
  for salmon mold,
Dry plucking,
Duck, Liver stuffing for,
  Peanut stuffing for roast,
  Preparation of,
  Roast,
  Spring,
  Young,
Ducks, Selection of,
Dumplings,
  or noodles, Chicken stew with,

E

Economic value of soup,
Economy in the purchase of poultry,
Eel, Fried,
  Stewed,
Egg balls,
Egg sauce,
Eggs and bacon,
Extractives,
  in meat,
Extracts, Meat,
  Soup,
  Vegetable,

F

Fat in fish,
  in meat,
  Trying out suet and other,
Feathers, Pin,
Feeding and care on quality of poultry, Influence of,
Fillet, Broiled,
  mignon,
  of beef,
  of flounder,
  of venison, Roast,
  of whitefish, Baked,
Filleting fish,
Finnan haddie, Baked,
  haddie, Creamed,
First soup stock,
Fish,
  and meat, Relative nutritive value of,
  and meat, Table showing the comparison of,
  Baked,
  Boiled,
  boiler,
  Boning a,
  Broiled,
  Carbohydrate in,
  chowder,
  Cleaning,
  Composition and food value of shell,
  Composition of,
  Cooking of,
  Creamed tuna,
  croquettes,
  Digestibility of,
  Fat in,
  Filleting,
  Food value of,
  Freshness of,
  Fried,
  in potato nest, Creamed,
  in the diet,
  in the diet, Canned,
  in the diet, Salt and smoked,
  in the home, Care of,
  Left-over,
  Mineral matter in,
  Planked,
  Protein in,
  Purchase of,
  Sauces for,
  Scaling a,
  Seasons for shell,
  Shell,
  Skinning,
  Steamed,
  Stewed,
  stock,
  Stuffing for,
  Table showing composition and food value of shell,
  Table showing the names, seasons, and uses of fresh,
  Table showing names, seasons, and uses of salt and smoked,
  Table showing seasons for shell,
  with meat, Comparison of,
Flat-bone steak,
Flavoring stock,
Flounder, Fillet of,
Food, Poultry as a,
  Sea,
  suitable for the stock pot,
  value and composition of beef,
  value and composition of black bass,
  value and composition of bluefish,
  value and composition of canned salmon,
  value and composition of carp,
  value and composition of catfish,
  value and composition of chicken broilers,
  value and composition of clams,
  value and composition of crabs,
  value and composition of fowl,
  value and composition of halibut steak,
  value and composition of lake trout,
  value and composition of lamb,
  value and composition of leg of lamb,
  value and composition of lobsters,
  value and composition of mutton,
  value and composition of oysters,
  value and composition of pork,
  value and composition of pork chops,
  value and composition of red snapper,
  value and composition of scallops,
  value and composition of veal,
  value and composition of whitefish,
  value of fish,
  value of fish, Factors determining,
  Value of meat as,
  value of shell fish, Composition and,
  value of shell fish, Tables showing composition and,
Forcemeat balls,
Fore quarter of veal,
Fork, Oyster,
Fowl, Composition and food value of,
  Definition of,
Fowls, Selection of guinea,
Frankfurters,
Fresh fish, Table showing the names, seasons, and uses of,
  herring, Stewed,
  mackerel, Broiled,
  pork, Preparation of,
Freshening salt and smoked fish,
Freshness of fish,
Fricassee of chicken,
Fricasseeing applied to meat and fowl,
Fried apples, Cold pork with,
  chicken,
  chicken, Gravy for,
  chicken, Maryland,
  chicken with paprika sauce,
  clams,
  eel,
  fish,
  oysters,
  perch,
  scallops,
  soft-shelled crabs,
Fritters, Oyster,
  Soup,
Frizzled beef,
Frying and sautéing applied to meat,
  chicken,
  of croquettes,
  Principles of deep-fat,

G

Gall bladder,
Game, Definition of,
  General description of,
  stock,
Garnishes, Soup accompaniments and,
Geese, Selection of,
Gelatine in meat,
Giblets, Cooking of,
  of a chicken,
Glycogen, or muscle sugar,
Goose, Preparation of,
  Roast,
Gravy for fried chicken,
  Making,
Green-pepper stuffing,
Guinea fowls, Selection of,
H

Haddock, Baked,
Halibut, Baked,
  steak, Composition and food value of,
  steak, Sautéd,
Ham,
  Baked,
  baked in milk,
  Boiled,
  Broiled,
Hamburger steak,
Hard-shelled crabs,
Hash, Beef,
  Turkey,
Headcheese,
Healthfulness of oysters,
Heart, Stuffed,
  sweetbread,
Heavy thick soups,
Herring, Stewed fresh,
Hind quarter of veal,
Hip-bone steak,
Home, Care of fish in the,
Horseradish sauce,
Household stock,

I

Individual lamb pies,
Influence of feeding and care on quality of poultry,
Iron, Timbale,

J

Jellied chicken,
  veal,
  veal, Left-over,
Julienne soup,

K

Keeping stock,
Kidneys,
Kouskous,
Krishara,

L

Lake trout, Composition and food value of,
Lamb,
  and mutton chops,
  and mutton cuts, Distinguishing features of,
  and mutton cuts, Names and uses of,
  and mutton, Left-over,
  and mutton stews,
  Comparison of mutton and,
  Composition and food value of,
  Cooking of mutton and,
  Crown roast of,
  cuts, Method of obtaining mutton and,
  cuts, Table of mutton and,
  Food value and composition of leg of,
  on toast, Minced,
  or mutton, Scalloped,
  pies, Individual,
  Rack of,
  Roast leg of,
  Saddle of,
  Spring,
  Turkish,
Lard, Leaf,
Larding,
Leaf lard,
Lebaba,
Left-over beef,
  -over fish,
  -over Jellied veal,
  -over lamb and mutton,
  -over Pork,
  -over Poultry,
  -over veal,
Leg of venison, Roast,
Lemon cream sauce,
Live chickens,
Liver and bacon,
  stuffing for roast duck,
Liverwurst,
Loaf, beef,
Lobster à la Newburg,
  cocktail,
  croquettes,
  Deviled,
  from the shell, Removing,
  Scalloped,
Lobsters, Composition and food value of,
  crabs and shrimp,
  Distinguishing features of,
  Preparation of,
Loin, Steaks obtained from beef,
Lynn Havens,

M

Mackerel, Broiled fresh,
  Sautéd salt,
Making gravy,
  soup,
Market, Preparation of poultry for,
Maryland fried chicken,
Meaning and use of soup stock,
Meat as food, Value of,
  Basting of,
  Carbohydrate in,
  Care of,
  Comparison of fish with,
  Cooking of,
Meat, Creamed crab,
  cuts, Names and uses of,
  Definition of,
  extracts,
  Extractives in,
  Fat in,
  Gelatine in,
  in the diet,
  in the home, Care of,
  in the market, Care of,
  Methods of cooking,
  Minerals in,
  preparations, Sausages and,
  Protein in,
  Purchase of,
  Purposes of cooking,
  Relative nutritive value of fish and,
  Serving and carving of,
  Structure and composition of,
  Time required for cooking,
  used for soup making,
  Water in,

Meats, Points to consider in buying,
  Time table for cooking,

Method of obtaining beef cuts,
  of obtaining mutton and lamb cuts,
Methods of cooking meat,
Mexican beef,
Mignon, Fillet,
Milk, Ham baked in,
Minced lamb on toast,
Mineral matter in fish,
Minerals in meat,
Minestra,
Mint sauce,
Mock chicken salad,
Mock duck, or rolled steak,
Mold, Salmon,
Mollusks,
Mulligatawny soup,
Muscle sugar, Glycogen or,
Mushroom sauce,
Mutton,
  and lamb chops,
  and lamb, Comparison of,
  and lamb, Cooking of,
  and lamb cuts, Distinguishing features of,
  and lamb cuts, Method of obtaining,
  and lamb cuts, Names and uses of,
  and lamb cuts, Table of,
  Composition and food value of,
  Left-over lamb and,
  Rack of,
  Roast leg of,
  Roast saddle of,
  Saddle of,
  Scalloped lamb or,
  stews, Lamb and,

N

Noodle soup,
Noodles, Chicken stew with dumplings or,
  Vegetable soup with,
Nut sauce,
Nutritive value of fish, Relative,

O

Onion soup, Cream of,
Opening clams,
  oysters,
Organs, Veal,
Ox-tail soup,
Oyster, Adductor muscle of an,
  cocktails,
  crabs,
  fork,
  fritters,
  pie,
  stew,
  stuffing,
  Valves of an,
Oysters, clams, and scallops,
  Composition of,
  Creamed,
  Digestibility of,
  Food value of,
  Fried,
  Healthfulness of,
  Important points in cooking,
  Opening,
  Preparation of,
  Purchasing,
  Raw,
  Scalloped,

P

Pan-broiled steak,
  -broiled veal steaks or cutlets,
  broiling, Cooking meat by,
Paprika sauce, Fried chicken with,
Partridge, Selection of,
Pastry strips,
Pâté de fois gras,
Patties, Rice and meat,
  Salmon,
Pea soup, Cream of,
Peanut stuffing for roast duck,
Perch, Fried,
Pheasant, partridge, and quail,
  Selection of,
Pickerel, Sautéd,
Pickled pig's feet,
  tongue,
Pie, Beef,
Pie, Chicken,
  Cottage,
  Oyster,
  Rabbit,
Pies, Individual lamb,
Pig, Roast,
Pigeons, Selection of,
Pig's feet, Pickled,
Pigs in blankets,
Pin feathers,
Planked fish,
  steak,
Plucking a chicken,
  Dry,
Poisoning, Ptomaine,
Ponhasse,
Pork,
  and cabbage, Scalloped,
  chops and tomato sauce,
  chops, Composition and food value of,
  Composition and food value of,
  Cooking of,
  Crown roast, of,
  Cuts of,
  Cuts, Table of,
  cuts, Uses of,
  General characteristics of,
  Left-over,
  Preparation of cured,
  Preparation of fresh,
  Roast,
  Salt,
  sausage,
  Sautéd or broiled,
  Sautéd tenderloin of,
  Tenderloin of,
  with fried apples, Cold,
Porterhouse roast,
  steak,
Pot-au-feu,
  -roasted beef,
  Stock,
Potato border, Broiled scrod with,
  chowder,
  nest, Creamed fish in,
  soup, Cream-of-,
Potpie, Veal,
Potroka,
Poulards,
Poultry as a food,
  Broiled,
  Classification of,
  Cold-storage,
  Composition of,
  Definition of,
  Effect of sex on quality of,
  for cooking, Preparation of,
  for the market, Preparation of,
  Indication of cold-storage,
  Left-over,
  other than chicken,
  Selection of,
  Serving and carving,
  Stuffing for roast,
  Table for the selection of,
  with rice, Baked,
Preparation of beef organs,
  of beefsteak,
  of chicken,
  of clams,
  of crabs,
  of cured pork,
  of duck,
  of fresh pork,
  of goose,
  of lobsters,
  of oysters,
  of poultry for cooking,
  of poultry for the market,
  of roasts,
  of scallops,
  of shrimp,
  of small birds,
  of stews and corned beef,
  of sweetbreads,
  of turkey,
  of veal cuts,
Preparing chicken feet,
  rabbit for cooking,
Principles of deep-fat frying,
Processes involved in making stock,
Protein in fish,
  in meat,
Ptomaine poisoning,
Purchase of fish,
  of meat,
  of poultry, Economy in the,
Purchasing oysters,
Purée, Chestnut,
  Split-pea,
Purées,
Purpose of soup in the meal,
Purposes of cooking meat,

Q

Quail, Selection of,
Quality in chicken, General marks of good,
  of poultry, Effect of sex on,
  of poultry, Influence of feeding and care on,

R

Rabbit for cooking, Preparing,
  pie,
  Roast,
  Sautéd,
Rack of lamb,
  of mutton,
Radishes and celery,
Raw clams,
  oysters,
Red snapper, Food value and composition of,
Relative nutritive value of fish,
Removing grease from soup,
  lobster from the shell,
Rib roast, Standing,
  roasts,
Rice and meat patties,
  Baked poultry with,
  Chicken with,
  Creamed salmon with,
  Scalloped veal with,
  stuffing,
Rigor mortis,
Roast beef,
  chicken,
  duck,
  duck, Liver stuffing for,
  duck, Peanut stuffing for,
  fillet of venison,
  goose,
  leg of lamb,
  leg of mutton,
  leg of venison,
  of lamb, Crown,
  of pork, Crown,
  pig,
  pork,
  Porterhouse,
  poultry, Stuffing for,
  rabbit,
  saddle of mutton,
  small birds,
  Standing rib,
  turkey,
Roasting,
  chicken,
Roasts, Chuck,
  Preparation of,
  Rib,
  Rump,
  Veal,
Roe, Broiled shad,
Rolled steak, or mock duck,
  steak, Stuffing for,
Rolls, Veal,
Rump roasts,

S

Saddle of lamb,
  of mutton,
  of mutton, Roast,
Salad, Chicken,
  Mock chicken,
  Veal,
Salmon, Boiled,
  Composition and food value of canned,
Salmon mold,
  mold, Dressing for,
  patties,
  with rice, Creamed,
Salt and smoked fish, Freshening,
  and smoked fish in the diet,
  and smoked fish, Table showing names, seasons, and uses of,
  mackerel, Sautéd,
  pork,
Sauce, Drawn-butter,
  Egg,
  for broiled venison,
  Fried chicken with paprika,
  Horseradish,
  Lemon cream,
  Mint,
  Mushroom,
  Nut,
  Spanish,
  Thin white,
  Tomato,
Sauces for fish,
Sausage, Pork,
Sausages and meat preparations,
Sautéd fish,
  halibut steak,
  or broiled pork,
  pickerel,
  rabbit,
  salt mackerel,
  smelts,
  tenderloin of pork,
Sautéing and frying,
Scaling a fish,
Scalloped lamb or mutton,
  lobster,
  oysters,
  pork with cabbage,
  veal with rice,
Scallops, Baked,
  Composition and food value of,
  Fried,
  Oysters, clams, and,
  Preparation of,
Scrapple,
Scrod with potato border, Broiled,
Sea food,
Seasons, and uses of fresh fish, Table showing the names,
  and uses of smoked fish, Table showing the names,
  for shell fish,
  for shell fish, Table showing,
Second soup stock,
Selection of chicken,
  of ducks,
  of poultry,
  of turkeys,
Serving and carving meat,
Serving and carving poultry,
  soup,
Shad roe, Broiled,
Shell fish,
  fish, Composition and food value of,
  fish, Seasons for,
  fish, Tables showing composition and food value of,
  fish, Table showing seasons for,
Shrimp à La Salle,
  Creamed,
  General characteristics of lobsters, crabs, and,
  Lobsters, crabs, and,
  Nature of,
  Preparation of,
Simmering, or stewing,
Singeing a chicken,
Sirloin steak,
Skinning fish,
Skirt steak,
Small birds, Preparation of,
  birds, Roast,
Smelts, Sautéd,
Smoked fish, Freshening salt and,
  fish in the diet, Salt and,
  fish, Table showing the names, seasons, and uses of,
Soft-shelled crabs,
  -shelled crabs, Fried,
Soljinka,
Soup,
  accompaniments and garnishes,
  accompaniments, Recipes for,
  and its place in the meal,
  and soup accompaniments,
  Clearing of,
  Cooking meat for,
  Cream-of-asparagus,
  Cream-of-corn,
  Cream-of-onion,
  Cream-of-pea,
  Cream-of-potato,
  Cream-of-spinach,
  Cream-of-tomato,
  Definition of,
  Economic value of,
  extracts,
  fritters,
  General classes of,
  in the meal, Purpose of,
  in the meal, Value of,
  Julienne,
  making, Meat used for,
  Making of,
  making, Vegetables used for,
  Mulligatawny,
  Noodle,
  Ox-tail,
  Principal ingredients of,
  Recipes for,
  Removing grease from,
  Serving,
  stock, Meaning and use of,
  stock, Uses of,
  stock, Varieties of,
  Thickening,
  Value of,
Soups, Classification of,
  Clear,
  Cream,
  denoting consistency, Classes of,
  Heavy thick,
  Thick,
  typical of particular countries,
Spanish sauce,
  stew,
Spinach soup, Cream-of-,
Split-pea purée,
Spring duck,
  lamb,
Squabs,
Squirrel, Broiled,
Standing rib roast,
Steak, Club,
  Delmonico,
  Flat-bone,
  Hamburger,
  Hip-bone,
  or cutlets, Veal,
  Pan-broiled,
  Planked,
  Porterhouse,
  Sautéd halibut,
  Sirloin,
  Skirt,
  Stuffing for rolled,
  Swiss,
  Vegetables served with,
Steaks obtained from the beef loin,
  obtained from the round,
  Preparation of beef,
Steamed clams,
  fish,
Stew, Beef,
  Oyster,
  Spanish,
  Veal,
Stewed eel,
  fish,
  fresh herring,
Stewing and corning, Beef for,
 or simmering,
Stews and corned beef, Preparation of,
  Lamb and mutton,
Sticks, Bread,
Stock, Bone,
Stock,
  First,
  Fish,
  flavoring,
  for clear soup or bouillon,
  for soup,
  Game,
  Household,
  Keeping,
  Meaning and use of soup,
  pot,
  pot, Food suitable for the,
  pot, Nature, use, and care of,
  Second,
  Varieties of soup,
  Vegetable,
  White,
Stocks and clear soups,
Stomach sweetbread,
Strips, Pastry,
Structure and composition of meat,
Stuffed heart,
  veal breast,
Stuffing, Bread,
  Chestnut,
  Cracker,
  for fish,
  for roast duck, Liver,
  for roast poultry,
  for rolled steak,
  for veal,
  Green-pepper,
  Oyster,
  Rice,
Suet, Trying out,
Sweetbread croquettes,
  Heart,
  Stomach,
  Throat,
Sweetbreads,
  Broiled,
  Creamed,
  Preparation of,
Swiss steak,

T

Table for the selection of poultry,
  of cuts obtained from a side of beef and their uses,
  of mutton and lamb cuts,
  of pork cuts,
  of veal cuts,
  showing composition and food value of shell fish,
  showing seasons for shell fish,
  showing the comparison of fish and meat,
  showing the names, seasons, and uses of fresh fish,
  showing the names, seasons, and uses of smoked fish,
Tarhonya,
Tenderloin of beef,
  of pork,
  of pork, Sautéd,
Thick soups,
Thickening soup,
Thin white sauce,
Throat sweetbread,
Timbale-case batter,
  cases,
  iron,
Time required for cooking meat,
Tissue, Connective,
Toast, Minced lamb on,
Tomato bouillon,
  sauce,
  sauce, Pork chops and,
  soup, Cream-of-,
Tomatoes, Bacon with,
Tongue, Boiled,
  Braized,
  Pickled,
Trout, Food value of lake,
Trying out suet,
Tuna fish, Creamed,
Turkey hash,
  Preparation of,
  Roast,
Turkeys, Selection of,
Turkish lamb,

U

Use of soup stock,
  of stock pot,
Uses of beef cuts,
  of fresh fish, Table showing the names, seasons, and,
  of lamb and mutton cuts,
  of smoked fish, Table showing the names, seasons, and,
  of veal cuts,

V

Value of fish, Food,
  of fish, Relative nutritive,
  of meat as food,
  of shell fish, Tables showing composition and food,
  of soup in the meal,
Valves of an oyster,
Varieties and uses of soup stock,
  of soup stock,
Veal, Bob,
  breast, Stuffed,
  chops,
  Composition and food value of,
  Cooking of,
  croquettes,
  cuts and their preparation,
  cuts and their uses,
  cuts, Table of,
  cutlets in brown sauce,
  Fore quarter of,
  Hind quarter of,
  Jellied,
  kidneys,
  Left-over,
  Left-over jellied,
  Nature of,
  on biscuits, Creamed,
  organs,
  potpie,
  roasts,
  rolls,
  salad,
  steak or cutlets, Pan-broiled,
  stew,
  Stuffing for,
  sweetbreads, Broiled,
  sweetbreads, Creamed,
  with rice, Scalloped,
Vegetable extracts,
  soup with noodles,
  stock,
Vegetables served with steak,
  used for soup making,
Venison, Broiled,
  Cuts of,
  Roast fillet of,
  Roast leg of,
  Sauce for,

W

Water in meat,
White stock,
Whitefish, Baked fillet of,
  Composition and food value of,
Wing tips of chicken,

Y

Yearling, Meaning of,
Young, or spring, duck,





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